Presentation on theme: "World War I. It was supposed to be "The War to End All Wars." For over four years World War I raged on, leaving in its wake a toll of death and destruction."— Presentation transcript:
World War I
It was supposed to be "The War to End All Wars." For over four years World War I raged on, leaving in its wake a toll of death and destruction such as the world had never seen.
The Roots of War European Powder Keg Four Sources of Conflict – Militarism – Alliances – Imperialism – Nationalism
Militarism Building a strong military – Protect Colonies – Display strength – Domination of the seas Great Britain / Germany – Domination of the ground Russia / Germany
Alliances Tied countries together in a series of binding military treaties making way for countries to go to war against each other knowing someone would back them up. Triple Alliance – Austro-Hungarian Empire, Germany, and Italy Triple Entente – France, Great Britain, Russia
Imperialism Growth in a countries size – outside borders. Asia, Africa, South America Colonial Countries = Power to European Powers RACE to be the most powerful
Nationalism European populations devoted to the interests of their own nations. – Germany / Italy – Colonial Competition – inspired patriotic feelings! European ethnic minorities under foreign rule often fiercely nationalistic and desired independence.
WWI - Begins The Powder Keg Explodes – – June 28, 1914 – Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and wife Sofia by a Serbian Nationalist.
Austro – Hungarian Empire Attempted to control the Balkan Region Annexed the region of Bosinia- Herzegoveina in Created Ethnicity Problems Serbia opposes this control – Secret society plots to assassinate the archduke.
Austria – Hungary Outraged Gives Serbia a list of demands – – Harsh demands or face war. Serbia = Full Russian support – Refuses to accept the demands.
Alliances – Send Europe Into War Austria-Hungary declares war on July 28. Within a week – most of Europe goes to war with each other.
U.S. Relationship With Europe “The U.S. should stay out of the affairs of Europe” George Washington Woodrow Wilson has announced during the summer of 1914 that the U.S. will stay neutral in the affairs of Europe. This becomes virtually impossible when Europe explodes in war.
Wilson Declares Neutrality Most Americans could trace their heritage to one of these European countries – creating feelings of animosity among those living in the U.S. Due to closer ties with Britain and France – the U.S. unconsciously supporting the Allied Powers.
Bloody Stalemate There would not be a quick victory for either side. – “It’s going to be a long war, in spite of the fact that on both sides every single man in it wants it stopped at once.” Winston Churchill
Modern Weaponry Proves to be far more deadly than anything used in previous wars. – Machine Guns – Mechanized Cannons – Poisonous Gas
Trench Warfare 475 miles – Switzerland to the North Sea – Treacherous mud – Icy water – ruining weapons – Disease – trench foot – Smell
Belgian troops entrenched along a railway line
Lewis light machine gun team
Dismounted German Hussars holding first-line trenches at Verdun
Russian trench shrouded with pine branches
U.S. Remains Neutral American’s were horrified by the brutality of the war. Volunteers help out American Red Cross American Ambulance Corps French Foreign Legion (individuals joined)
Economics U.S. will trade with both sides. British Naval Blockade keeps U.S. from trading with Central Powers forcing them to take a side. $$$$ becomes very important for the U.S. during this war… the first time the U.S. is not a debtor nation. Puts them in a very powerful position at the end of the war!
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare German U-Boats violate international law. Britain’s naval superiority was challenged by German technology in underwater sea power.
Britain’s Naval Blockade February 1915 – Germany announces Unrestricted Submarine Warfare. Waters around England declared a war zone. Breaking International Law – forbidding naval ships to sink another ship without advanced warning.
Response to German’s Unrestricted Warfare Allies and U.S. appalled President Wilson warns Germany that it will be held accountable for any American losses at sea. – Central Powers – Know they cannot win if the U.S. enters against them. – Promise not to fire on any neutral ships unless they enter the war zone around Britain. – U-Boats sink over 90 ships.
The Lusitania British Passenger Liner Newspaper Ad – Germany Embassy Warning to sail at your own risk. – 2,000 on board – 1,200 die – 125 Americans – 128 Children
Wilson Campaigns for Neutrality Americans are outraged – Call for a repeal of the neutrality declaration. – Wilson strongly condemns Germany but remains committed to the U.S. stance of neutrality. – Germany – still not wanting the U.S. involved in the war - APOLOGIZES
Tensions Continue to Rise Three Americans killed in 1916 after a U-Boat fires on an unarmed French Ship in the English Channel. Wilson threatens to break diplomatic relations if Germany does not stop violating international law.
The Zimmerman Telegram Telegram sent by German foreign secretary – Arthur von Zimmerman to German ambassador in Mexico – Jan
U.S. Declares War on Germany April 2, 1917 – Wilson concedes “neutrality is no longer feasible where the peace of the world is involved.” World should be made safe for democracy.
U.S. Mobilization April 1917 – U.S. completely unprepared – Draft – War Production Board – Industry and Agriculture – increase production to meet war time needs. – Propaganda Campaigns CPI – Committee on Public Information “Four-Minute Men”
Effects of Propaganda “World Safe for Democracy” – U.S. practicing undemocratic ideas. – Espionage Act of 1917 – Sedition Act of 1918 – Widespread rejection of anything German
American Troops Excitement for the unknown (many never left their hometown) Scared to death – Horrors of war Unprepared –
General Pershing – American Commanding General New troops help the war weary Allies push back the German troops. U.S. Naval fleets assist the British navy in dealing with U-Boats.
Russia’s Leaves the War Revolutions in 1917 lead to Russia exiting the war early. This would allow Germany and Austria to focus all their attention on the Western Front. Lenin’s calls for Peace, Land, and Bread
Allied Powers Struggle With Russia out on the Eastern front the Allies will continue to struggle on the Western Front to defeat the Central Powers U.S. Declares war in April 1917 – but very few troops see any action until the summer of Influenza – Strikes all forces and the world – leaves Germany and Austria-Hungary paralyzed.
Victory for the Allies Central Powers are so wore down by the Fall of 1918 individual powers are seeking an armistice as quickly as possible from the Allied Powers – Wilson becomes the chief peace negotiator. Germany keeps holding out for a more favorable armistice but in the end come out with the harshest of all treaties (Treaty of Versailles)
Wilson’s Fourteen Points Wilson came up with a plan for Peace – The Fourteen Points – He didn’t believe in Revenge and called for a “Peace without victory” Wilson toted his Fourteen Points all over Europe in an effort to bring the war to a close and Germany’s surrender was based on many of the ideas in Wilson’s Fourteen Points.
Highlights of the 14 Points Countries all over the world would have “Self- Determination” Free Trade – No more Tariffs An End to secret Alliances (Pacts) between nations. Freedom of the Seas Arms Reduction The forming of a world organization – a League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles Most of Wilson’s points were left out of the Treaty. Germany comes out of the Treaty with a huge War Debt and takes all the blame for the war. The US refused to join the League of Nations.
Influenza Summer of 1918 – Flu spread around the world killing more than 20 million people. – Bird Flu / Swine Flu – Spread most rapidly in Cities – Killed very quickly.
Red Scare Afraid of Russia and the Communist Revolution Most Americans were not interested in Communism but as the US struggled for a return to NORMALACY after WWI, anything different was often referred to as Communist. Palmer Raids – Wilson’s Attorney General – Went on a Witch Hunt! Sacco and Vanzetti – Italians immigrants accused of murdering a paymaster and his guard at a shoe factory. Even today their guilt is doubted.