Presentation on theme: "Designer Education Series Event Quarrying and Fabrication Presented by the Building Stone Institute, Delta Stone Products, Inc., and Mountain Valley Stone."— Presentation transcript:
Designer Education Series Event Quarrying and Fabrication Presented by the Building Stone Institute, Delta Stone Products, Inc., and Mountain Valley Stone
Building Stone Institute is a Registered Provider of the American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit Earned on completion of the program will be reported to the CES Records for all AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non- AIA members are available on request. - This Program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional Education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing or dealing in any material or product. -Questions related to specific materials, methods and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
Learning Objectives: After completing this program attendees will be able to: Identify the composition and general properties of the quartzitic sandstone being quarried. Explain the general operations involved in quarrying quartzitic sandstone. Explain the various fabrication methods involved in the production of quartzitic sandstone products. Explain the installation options of both full bed depth veneer stone and natural thin veneer. Identify the shop drawing and cut ticket process involved in ordering custom cut stone. Identify the sawing and cutting processes for limestone, sandstone and granite in which the stone is changed from quarry block material into a finished product. Identify the strengths and limitations of both full bed depth veneer stone and natural thin veneer. Identify the environmental, fiscal and ecological advantages to using natural stone in the stead of their man made equivalents. Demonstrate the proper installation of natural accent and architectural stone.
Limestone Limestone A sedimentary rock A sedimentary rock composed largely of composed largely of calcium carbonate. calcium carbonate. Compression strength: Compression strength: 4,000 – 6,000 psi 4,000 – 6,000 psi Many Stone Types
Travertine Travertine is a sedimentary rock. When carbon dioxide-rich water percolates through rocks in percolates through rocks in limestone areas, the water dissolves the limestone and becomes saturated with it. becomes saturated with it. When the environment changes significantly the water releases the carbon dioxide as gas and then recrystallizes. Many Stone Types Compression strength: – 6,000 psi – 6,000 psi
Marble Marble Many Stone Types Often Starts as Limestone. Intense pressure and heat cause the limestone to recrystallize forming an interlocking mosaic of calcite and aragonite. The greater the calcite content, the whiter and harder the stone. Compression strength: 5,000 to 18,000 psi
Many Stone Types Granite Granite Granite-is a type of intrusive, felsic (feldspar and silica), felsic (feldspar and silica), igneous rock, is formed From magma and is the Hardest of the stones. Compression strength: 17,500 – 29,000 psi 17,500 – 29,000 psi
Sandstone Sandstone A sedimentary rock A sedimentary rock formed by compaction formed by compaction of sand and held together of sand and held together by silica. by silica. Compressive strength: Compressive strength: 4,000 – 7,000 psi 4,000 – 7,000 psi Many Stone Types
Quartzite Quartzite A metamorphic rock that A metamorphic rock that was originally sandstone was originally sandstone and converted through and converted through intense pressure and heat. intense pressure and heat. Compression strength: Over 20,000 psi Many Stone Types
Quartzitic Sandstone Quartzitic Sandstone Hybrid term. A sandstone that has been exposed to intense heat and pressure but not enough to morph to a full Quartzite. Compression strength: 10,000 – 19,000 psi Many Stone Types
Inside The Quarry Many different types of stone quarry. This is an open pit stone quarry. Many types of stone formations. This is a Sedimentary Up-Thrust formation. Specifically called the Bonneville Nugget. Boulder quarry that produces boulders in sizes from 1 foot (landscaping boulders) to 10 foot (saw blocks). Flagstone is not produced naturally from this quarry.
Inside The Quarry Cont… As an Open Pit Boulder Quarry, we blast on a very limited basis. Usually using only enough to loosen an unusually tight area. When the stone is loose we use track hoes/excavators to extract the material and load it into dump/haul trucks. The stone is then transported to the production areas.
What can quarries do to aid in resource conservation? By quarrying everything dry, we are able to reduce the chances of ground water contamination. By virtually eliminating the need for blasting, harsh chemical contamination is nearly non-existent. By offering many different products and crushing all of our excess stone, we reduce the need to disturb additional areas and all but eliminate waste.
Material Production (Guillotines) Guillotines: are hydraulic splitting machines using 300 tons of pressure to split the fabricated slabs into smaller semi- dimensional stones. Have limited customizing capability. Products available from the guillotine include: squares and rectangle builders (min. 2”, max. 15”), landscape stair treads, dry stack material and select custom caps to order (sill caps, column caps, hearth material, etc.) (min. width 4” max. 60”).
Material Production (Guillotines) Cont… All material produced on the guillotine is subject to ½” +/- tolerances. A guillotines average production is approximately 45 to 50 tons per day. Quarries that produce slabs in greater quantity are able to increase the production yield of their guillotines.
Boulders that have quality grain are separated by the lead operators for the flagging process. At this quarry, flagstone is hand split from the raw boulder material. Due to the nature of the formation, flagging is a difficult and time consuming process. Material Production (Flagging)
Once split the stone is separated by thickness and quality. Materials produced by a flagging crew include: floor stones, patio stones, veneer stones, and landscape dry stack material. Flagstone is separated by quality and thickness. Thicknesses range from 1”- to 4-6”. Material Production (Flagging) Cont…
Inventory and trucking Once past the fabrication process the stone is staged by product type and size for visibility, selection, inventory management, and loading convenience. Dump trucks often pick up boulder and bulk material. The boulders are loaded using a track hoe with thumb. Bulk material is loaded by a front end loader or track hoe.
Inventory and trucking Cont… The dump truck is weighed on the way in and on the way out and is charged per ton for the material. Flat bed trucks are used to haul the palletized material. Palletized material is loaded by forklifts/front end loaders. Because palletized material has been pre-weighed it is not necessary to weigh the flatbed trucks at all.
Inventory and trucking Cont… Trucks are inspected prior to shipping to ensure that the mode of transportation is appropriate to the weight and type for the material.