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Unit #2: Rocks, Minerals, and Resources. Rock - a naturally formed solid piece of the Earth’s crust composed of a mixture of minerals All rocks have.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit #2: Rocks, Minerals, and Resources. Rock - a naturally formed solid piece of the Earth’s crust composed of a mixture of minerals All rocks have."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit #2: Rocks, Minerals, and Resources

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3 Rock - a naturally formed solid piece of the Earth’s crust composed of a mixture of minerals All rocks have minerals /The-Rock-Cyclehttp://www.schooltube.com/video/503ca205aae459f4 7494/The-Rock-Cycle

4 Rocks that contain 1 mineral are called monomineralic. Rocks that contain more than 1 mineral are called polymineralic.

5 Rock Types Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic

6 Rock Classification Rock are classified based upon how they form. Igneous rocks form from the cooling and solidification of molten rock.

7 Sedimentary rocks form from fragments of other rocks, chemical precipitates, or organic remains. Metamorphic rocks form from other rocks that undergo intense heat and pressure but not melting.

8 Types of Molten Rock Lava - liquid rock at the Earth’s surface Magma - liquid rock beneath the Earth’s surface

9 &safe=active

10 Mt Etna, November 18, 2013

11 Types of Igneous Rock Intrusive or Plutonic - form from magma - have larger crystals and a coarse texture Extrusive or Volcanic - form from lava - have smaller crystals and a finer texture

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16 Composition Mafic Dark color, high density Contains Magnesium(Mg) and Iron(Fe) bearing minerals Felsic Light color, low density Contains feldspar and silicate minerals High aluminum(Al) content

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18 Vesicles Tiny holes created by gases escaping from molten lava while it is cooling and solidifying

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20 Igneous Rock

21 Coarse Texture in Gabbro

22 Fine Texture in Basalt

23 Extrusive Igneous Rock

24 Do Now 1.What three factors are used to identify igneous rocks? 2.What processes cause the formations of the following rock types? (Igneous, Metamorphic, Sedimentary) 3.Where do sediments come from?

25 Types Of Sediments Clastic- Fragments of Other Rocks-Grain Size Evaporties- Sea Water evaplorates leaving behind sediments. (Salt) Precipitates- Chemical-Solutioning(ions) Biologic-Plankton, Diatoms Biologic- Terrestrial– Plants/Trees Marine- Shells, Coral, Stromatalites

26 Types of Sedimentary Rock Clastic or Fragmental - form from the fragments of other rocks (sediment)

27 Stream Deposition Cause of deposition- Velocity Decreases Sediment characteristics effecting deposition –Size – –Shape- –density

28 Size: Largest Particles Settle Fir st Shape: Roundest Particles Settle First Density: The most dense particles settle first.

29 Horizontal Sorting Stream Flow Flow Widens Slower Water Large, Round, Dense Sediment Small, Flat, Lighter Sediment Delta

30 The Yukon River Delta

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34 Sedimentary Rock

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37 Vertical Sorting Small Large

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41 Types of Sedimentary Rock Nonclastic - organic and chemical - form from organic remains (shells, etc.) or chemical precipitates

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43 Types of Metamorphism Regional - heat and pressure are applied to a large area of rock in collision zones of the Earth’s tectonic plates Contact or Thermal - rock is “burned” due to heat from lava or magma

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53 Types of Metamorphic Rock Foliated- have banded, striped, or layered minerals due to pressure applied during metamorphism Nonfoliated - do not have a banded, striped, or layered appearance

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59 Foliation and Distorted Structure

60 Metamorphic Rock

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63 Features in Igneous Rocks The faster the molten rock cools the smaller the crystal size in the resulting rock. Rock forming from lava have smaller crystals than rocks forming from magma

64 Some igneous rocks have a glassy texture due to quick cooling. Some igneous rocks have holes called vesicles formed by gases escaping from lava.

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71 Features in Sedimentary Rocks Fossils tend to occur only in sedimentary rocks. Some sedimentary rocks have fragments of other rocks (sediment) within them.

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74 Sedimentary rocks form in flat, horizontal layers called strata. Some sedimentary rocks form from evaporating sea water (evaporites).

75 Sedimentary Rock

76 Some other features in sedimentary rocks are : Cross Bedding Ripple Marks Mud Cracks Graded Bedding

77 Cross Bedding in Sandstone

78 Ripple Marks in Sand

79 Mud Cracks in Clay

80 Graded Bedding

81 Features in Metamorphic Rocks Some metamorphic rocks have a banded, striped, or layered appearance (foliation). Metamorphism can enlarge mineral grains or create new minerals.

82 Metamorphism can increase the density of a rock. Some metamorphic rocks have a distorted or twisted rock structure created by intense pressure. Metamorphism causes changes in rock through recrystallization.

83 Distribution of Rock Types on the Earth Sedimentary rocks tend to be found in a thin layers at the Earth’s surface. Igneous and Metamorphic rocks tend to form in mountain ranges.

84 The abundance of igneous and metamorphic rocks increase as you go deeper into the Earth.


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