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Rocks: Mineral Mixtures

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Presentation on theme: "Rocks: Mineral Mixtures"— Presentation transcript:

1 Rocks: Mineral Mixtures
Chapter 4

2 Rock Definition Solid mixture of one or more minerals

3 Rock Cycle Process in which one rock type changes into another rock type Three Rock types: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic

4 Rock Cycle Mechanics: Sedimentary
Weathering and Erosion Forms clasts or grains Deposition Compacting and Cementing Glues rock together, usually in layers

5 Metamorphism Mechanics
Rock undergoes Heat and Pressure

6 Igneous Mechanics Melting Cooling Solidification Magma under crust
Lava on Earth’s surface Cooling Solidification

7 Rock Classification Color Composition Texture
Minerals determine make-up of the rock Texture Size and shape of grains Fine Medium Coarse

8 Igneous Rocks Rock formed from cooling magma or lava
Three ways rock can melt: Increase in temperature Release of pressure Composition Fluids and gases can lower melting point of rock Rocks will freeze between 700 and 1,250 Water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius Comes from Latin word for “fire”

9 Composition Felsic Mafic Lightweight Light in color High silica
Dark in color Dense or heavy Low silica

10 Texture Intrusive Extrusive Coarse grained Cools below crust
Cools slowly Extrusive Fine grained Cools above the crust Cools quickly

11 Composition and Texture
Coarse-Grained Fine-Grained Felsic: High silica Granite Rhyolite Mafic: Low silica Gabbro Basalt

12 Igneous Structures Volcanic necks Pluton and Batholith
Lava flows and sills



15 Sedimentary rocks Rock that is formed when sediments are compacted and cemented together Dissolved minerals in solution glue sediments together Forms at or near the Earth’s surface Sediment rocks form in layers known as strata

16 Sedimentary Rocks

17 Composition of Sedimentary rocks
Classified by way it forms Classifications: Clastic Chemical Organic

18 Clastic Sedimentary Made of fragments of other rocks
Grain size helps identify rock Coarse = Conglomerate Medium = Sand/siltstone Fine = Shale

19 Chemical Sedimentary Forms from solutions of minerals and water
Precipitation dissolves minerals Rock forms through evaporation, or will crystallize out of water solution

20 Organic Sedimentary Comprised of the remains of once living organisms
Some limestone is formed this way Comprised of Calcium Carbonate Reacts with acid

21 Sedimentary Rock Structure
Stratification Layering of sedimentary rock Layers are called Strata

22 Metamorphic Rocks Meta = Changed Morphos = Shape
Rock that forms when composition and texture of preexisting rock is changed by heat and pressure Enlargement and rearrangement of grains Change occurs deep underground (plate tectonics) Two Common Types Regional Contact

23 Metamorphism Types Contact Rock does not melt, but cooks into new rock
Regional Enormous pressure Due to crust colliding Found near continental formations (mountains)

24 Composition Conditions allow for minerals to combine making new rocks
Some minerals will only form at certain pressure and heat ranges

25 Texture Foliated Mineral grains aligned due to pressure Nonfoliated
Lacks mineral alignment Commonly made of one or a few minerals

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