Presentation on theme: "GEOLOGY PROJECT TOPIC- CLASSIFICATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK S."— Presentation transcript:
GEOLOGY PROJECT TOPIC- CLASSIFICATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK S
GROUP MEMBERS 1.AYUSH KUMAR (ROLL019) 2.SHAKTI SHEKHAR (ROLL067) 3. SHASHI KUMAR SRIVASTAV (ROLL069)
Sedimentary rocks Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Or Sedimentary rocks are formed by the lithification of inorganic and/or organic sediments, or as chemical precipitates.
CLASSIFICATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS There are two types of sedimentary rocks: 1. Clastic 2. Chemical
Clastic sedimentary rocks Clastic sedimentary rocks Clastic sedimentary rocks form when existing parent rock material is weathered, fragmented, transported, and deposited in layers that compact, cement, and lithify to form sedimentary rocks.
Chemical sedimentary rocks Chemical s s s sedimentary rocks are formed by a variety of processes and are divided into sub- categories including inorganic, and biochemical or organic chemical sedimentary rocks.
Clastic sedimentary rocks Few examples of clastic sedimentary rocks are Limestone Breccia Chert Sandstone Shale Mudstone Conglomerate
Chemical sedimentary rocks Few examples of chemical sedimentary rocks are Flint Chert Jasper Dolomite Magnesite Rock salt Gypsum
Relative Percentages of Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary Rocks in North America
Classification of Clastic sedimentary rocks
CLASSIFICATION OF CHEMICAL SEDIMENTARY ROCKS S.NOTYPESUB-TYPECHARACTERISTICS 1.CHEMICALLY FORMED ROCKS Siliceous (Flint, chert, jasper) Silica is chief constituent Carbonate (Dolomite, magnesite) Precipitated from carbonate rich waters FerruginousOxides and hydroxides are common examples PhosphaticForm from sea water rich in phosphoric acid Evaporites(Rock salt, gypsum) Formed from evaporation
S.NOTYPESUB-TYPECHARACTERISTICS 2.ORGANIC DEPOITS CarbonateFormed by gradual accumulation of shells and skeletal bones of sea organism Carbonaceous (Coal) They are rich in carbon its main source is plants Phosphatic Deposits-Guano Accumulation of excreta of some birds Ferruginous Deposits Mostly iron carbonate deposits, from fresh water lakes
DIFFERENT SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
Chert Chert is composed of silicon dioxide (SiO2). It occurs as nodules, concretionary masses and as layered deposits. Chert is a very hard material that produces a spark when it is struck against steel. The heat from this spark can be used to start fires
Limestone Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) in the form of the mineral calcite. calcite It most commonly forms in clear, warm,shallow marine waters. Limestone can also form through evaporation. Stalactites, stalagmites and other cave formations (often called "speleothems") are examples of limestone that formed through evaporation.
Breccia Breccia are composed of large angular fragments (over two millimeters in diameter). The spaces between the large angular fragments can be filled with a matrix of smaller particles or a mineral cement that binds the rock together. Breccia forms where broken, angular fragments of rock or mineral debris accumulate. Possible location for breccia formation is at the base of an outcrop where mechanical weathering debris accumulates or alluvial fan. Some breccias form as debris flow deposits.
Conglomerate Conglomerate is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finer- grained matrix that have become cemented together. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias, which consist of angular clasts. Both conglomerates and breccias are characterized by clasts larger than sand (>2 mm)