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Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks. Significance for Climate and CCS Form at the surface, so directly influnced by Earth’s climate, provide the climate record.

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Presentation on theme: "Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks. Significance for Climate and CCS Form at the surface, so directly influnced by Earth’s climate, provide the climate record."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

2 Significance for Climate and CCS Form at the surface, so directly influnced by Earth’s climate, provide the climate record Form at the surface, so directly influnced by Earth’s climate, provide the climate record Provide reservoir and seal lithologies Provide reservoir and seal lithologies

3 The Rock Cycle

4 Major Sediment/ Sedimentary Rock Types Clastics Clastics Particles of preexisting rock Particles of preexisting rock Chemical and biochemical Chemical and biochemical Precipitated from solution Precipitated from solution

5 Clastics Particles of preexisting rock Particles of preexisting rock Effect of weathering Effect of weathering Dominantly silicate minerals Dominantly silicate minerals

6 Gravel and conglomerate/breccia > 30% of grains > 2mm > 30% of grains > 2mm Conglomerate if rounded, breccia if angular Conglomerate if rounded, breccia if angular Need strong currents Need strong currents

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10 Sand and sandstone Dominantly sand sized particles ( mm) Dominantly sand sized particles ( mm)

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14 Sand and sandstone Dominantly sand sized particles ( mm) Dominantly sand sized particles ( mm) Major kinds of sandstones Major kinds of sandstones Quartz arenites Quartz arenites

15 Quartz arenite

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17 Sand and sandstone Dominantly sand sized particles ( mm) Dominantly sand sized particles ( mm) Major kinds of sandstones Major kinds of sandstones Quartz arenites Quartz arenites Arkoses Arkoses

18 Arkose

19 Sand and sandstone Dominantly sand sized particles ( mm) Dominantly sand sized particles ( mm) Major kinds of sandstones Major kinds of sandstones Quartz arenites Quartz arenites Arkoses Arkoses Lithic arenites Lithic arenites Graywacke (wacke) Graywacke (wacke)

20 Graywacke

21 Mud and mudrock Particles dominantly (<0.062) Particles dominantly (<0.062) Silt and siltstone ( mm) Silt and siltstone ( mm) Clay and claystone (<0.004 mm) Clay and claystone (<0.004 mm) Weak to no currents Weak to no currents

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23 Shale (Mudrock)

24 Chemical and biochemical Precipitated from solution Precipitated from solution Formed at or near place of deposition Formed at or near place of deposition Dominantly carbonates & evaporites Dominantly carbonates & evaporites Classified by chemical composition Classified by chemical composition

25 Carbonates Limestone (CaCO 3 ) Limestone (CaCO 3 ) Dolostone (CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 ) Dolostone (CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 )

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28 The White Cliffs of Dover

29 Evaporites Halite (NaCl) Halite (NaCl) Gypsum (CaSO 4. 2H 2 O) Gypsum (CaSO 4. 2H 2 O)

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32 Bonneville salt flats, Utah

33 Siliceous Chert (microcrystalline SiO 2 ) Chert (microcrystalline SiO 2 ) Flint Flint Jasper Jasper Agate Agate

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35 Jasper

36 Agate

37 Siliceous Chert (microcrystalline SiO 2 ) Chert (microcrystalline SiO 2 ) Flint Flint Jasper Jasper Agate Agate Siliceous sediment Siliceous sediment Microfossils Microfossils Radiolarians

38 Bedded Chert

39 Siliceous Chert (microcrystalline SiO 2 ) Chert (microcrystalline SiO 2 ) Flint Flint Jasper Jasper Agate Agate Siliceous sediment Siliceous sediment Microfossils Microfossils Diagenetic Diagenetic

40 Chert nodules in Permian Kaibab Limestone. Grand Canyon, Arizona

41 Phosphorite Rich in phosphorous Ca 10 (PO 4,CO 3 ) 6 F 2-3 Rich in phosphorous Ca 10 (PO 4,CO 3 ) 6 F 2-3 Phosphatic sediment (e.g., fish bones) Phosphatic sediment (e.g., fish bones) Diagenetic Diagenetic

42 Bat guano, Slaughter Canyon Cave, NM Why is this geology student so happy?

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44 Transportation and deposition

45 Currents Air and water Air and water The faster the current the larger the particles The faster the current the larger the particles

46 Settling velocity

47 Sorting

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50 Rounding

51 Sedimentary Structures Depositional Depositional Erosional Erosional Deformational Deformational Chemical (diagenetic) Chemical (diagenetic) Large-scale features of sedimentary rocks that result from physical and/or chemical processes

52 Stratification Bedding Lamination

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54 Laminated shale

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62 1957, Charles Herbert

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64 Depositional (Sedimentary) Environments A geographic location characterized by a particular combination of geological processes and environmental conditions

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76 Diagenesis All the changes sediment undergoes subsequent to deposition and prior to metamorphism

77 Physical (mechanical) diagenesis Compaction Compaction Fracturing Fracturing Ductile deformation Ductile deformation Grain rearrangement Grain rearrangement

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79 Chemical diagenesis Mineral precipitation (cementation) Mineral precipitation (cementation) Dissolution Dissolution Grain Grain Cement Cement

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85 Lithification The processes by which sediment is transformed into sedimentary rock


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