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© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 7 Lecture Tarbuck and Lutgens Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology Eleventh Edition
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Importance of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks cover ~ 75% of Earth’s surface ~ 5 % (by volume) of Earth’s outer 10 miles Contain evidence of past environments: Important resource –Coal, oil, and other fossil fuels –Groundwater resources
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Origins of Sedimentary Rock Products of mechanical & chemical weathering Sediments & soluble constituents are transported down slope by gravity Sediments are deposited & buried Deposition causes lithification Types of sedimentary rocks: –Detrital –Crystalline –Chemical/Organic sedimentary rocks
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Detrital Sedimentary Rocks Detrital Rocks –form from sediments that have been weathered and transported –Mostly clay minerals, quartz, feldspars, and micas –Particle size is used to distinguish among the various rock types
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Detrital Sedimentary Rocks Shale –Silt & clay-sized particles –Form from settling of sediments in quiet, non- turbulent environments –Sediments form in thin layers (laminae) –Has fissility (rock can be split into thin layers) –Most common sedimentary rock
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Detrital Sedimentary Rocks Sandstone –Sand-sized particles –Forms in many environments –Common sedimentary rock –Quartz is the most abundant mineral Quartz sandstone (quartz) Arkose sandstone (feldspar) Graywacke contains rock fragments and matrix, in addition to quartz and sandstone
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Detrital Sedimentary Rocks Sandstone –Sorting is the degree of similarity in particle size in a sedimentary rock –If all the grains in a rock are of similar size, the rock is well sorted –If the grains in a rock are different sizes (both large and small grains), the rock is poorly sorted –Sorting can help decipher the depositional environment of the rock
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sandstone –The particles in sandstone vary and are classified by their sorting and shape Detrital Sedimentary Rocks
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Conglomerate and Breccia –Conglomerate consists of rounded, gravel-sized sediments –Breccia consists of angular, gravel-sized sediments –Both types of rocks are poorly sorted Detrital Sedimentary Rocks
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Form from precipitated material that was once in solution Precipitation of material occurs by: –Evaporation –Organic processes from water-dwelling organisms form biochemical sedimentary rocks
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Limestone –Most abundant chemical sedimentary rock –Mainly composed of the mineral calcite –Can form from inorganic and biochemical origins
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Biochemical limestone forms from shells of marine organisms –Large quantities of marine limestone are formed from corals –Corals secrete a calcium carbonate skeleton and create reefs –Australia’s Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef on Earth –Coquina is composed of cemented fragments of shell material –Chalk is composed of microscopic marine organisms
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Carbonate Reefs
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Coquina
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The White Chalk Cliffs
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Evaporites –Form when restricted seaways become over-saturated and salt deposition starts –Rock salt and rock gypsum are two common evaporites
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Coal: An Organic Sedimentary Rocks Stages of Coal Formation –Accumulation of plant remains –Formation of peat –Formation of lignite and bituminous coal –Formation of anthracite coal
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Turning Sediments into Sedimentary Rock: Diagenesis and Lithification Many changes occur to sediment after it is deposited –Lithification—unconsolidated sediments are transformed into sedimentary rocks Compaction—as sediments are buried, the weight of the overlying material compresses the deeper sediments Cementation—involves the crystallization of minerals among the individual sediment grains
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Classification of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the type of material –Two major groups Detrital –Has clastic texture, composed of discrete fragments cemented together Chemical/Organic –Has nonclastic or crystalline texture, where the minerals form patterns of interlocked crystals
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Identification of Sedimentary Rocks
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. An environment of deposition or a sedimentary environment is a geographic setting where sediment is accumulating Determines the nature of the sediments that accumulate (grain size, grain shape, etc.) Sedimentary Rocks Represent Past Environments
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary Rocks Represent Past Environments Types of Sedimentary Environments –Three broad categories Continental Marine Transition
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Continental Environments –Dominated by stream erosion and deposition Streams are the dominant agent of landscape alteration –Glacial Deposits are typically unsorted mixtures of sediments that range from clay to boulder-sized –Wind (eolian) Well-sorted, fine sediments Sedimentary Rocks Represent Past Environments
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Marine Environments –Shallow marine (to about 200 meters) Borders the world’s continents Receives huge quantities of terrestrial sediments Warm seas with minimal terrestrial sediments have carbonate-rich muds –Deep marine (seaward of continental shelves) Primarily fine sediments that accumulate on the ocean floor Turbidity currents are the exception Sedimentary Rocks Represent Past Environments
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Transitional Environments –The shoreline is the transition zone between marine and continental environments Examples include: –Beaches –Tidal flats –Lagoons –Deltas Sedimentary Rocks Represent Past Environments
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary Environments
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary Structures The layers of the sedimentary rocks are called strata or beds
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary Structures Cross-bedding occurs when the layers in the sedimentary rocks are inclined Characteristic of sand dunes, deltas, and some stream deposits
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary Structures Graded beds - sediments in a strata gradually change from coarse at the bottom to fine at the top
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary Structures –Ripple marks are small waves that are lithified in the sedimentary rocks –Mud cracks indicate sediments form in an alternatively wet and dry environment –Fossils evidence of prehistoric life
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Carbon Cycle and Sedimentary Rocks CO 2 is one of the most active parts of the carbon cycle –Plants absorb CO 2 through photosynthesis –When plants die, some of the CO 2 is deposited in the sediments Over geologic time, considerable amounts of plant biomass is converted into fossil fuels When fossil fuels are burned, that CO 2 is released back into the atmosphere
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. End of Chapter 7
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