2Objectives Explain the processes of compaction and cementation. Describe how chemical and organic sedimentary rocks form.Describe how clastic sedimentary rock forms.Identify seven sedimentary rock features.
3SedimentLoose fragments of rock, minerals, and organic material that result from natural processes.
4Sedimentary Rock Characteristics Determined by the source of the sediment, the way the sediment was moved, and depositional conditions.
52 Main Processes Convert Sediments Into Sedimentary Rock CompactionCementation
6CompactionThe weight of overlying sediments causes pressure, squeezing the sediment, reducing the size of the pore (empty) space between sediment grains.
7CementationWater carrying dissolved minerals passes through the sediments and then forms small crystals between the rock fragments to hold the fragments together.
8Three Main Classes of Sedimentary Rocks ChemicalOrganicClasticBased upon how the rocks form and their composition.Each class is further subdivided based on the shape, size, and composition of the sediments that form the rocks.
9Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Rocks that form from minerals that were once dissolved in water.
10Precipitation (Settling) Some minerals settle out of water as a result of a change in temperature. Some chemical limestones form when cool ocean currents lower the temperature of ocean water and calcite (calcium carbonate; CaCO3) precipitates and eventually solidifies on the ocean floor.
11An example: The Redwall Limestone of the Grand Canyon area Great thicknesses of limestone can result. The topmost cliff is the Redwall Limestone. It averages 500 feet in thickness and is about 335 million years old.
12EvaporitesDissolved minerals can be left behind when water evaporates. These minerals then form rocks called evaporites. Gypsum and halite (rock salt) are two examples.
13Organic Sedimentary Rocks Rock formed from the remains of living things.
14LimestoneOrganic limestones formed from shells made up of calcite from clams, oysters, snails, corals, and plankton.
15CoalFormed from plants that are buried and compacted into matter that is mostly carbon.
16ChalkA type of limestone made up of the shells of tiny, one-celled marine organisms that then formed a mud on the bottom of an ancient sea.White Cliffs of Dover
17Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Made up of accumulations of rock fragments carried away from their source by gravity, water, wind, and/or ice.Clastic sedimentary rocks are classified according to the kind and size of sediments that form them.
19ConglomerateFormed from rounded rock fragments greater than 2 mm, held together by a matrix of sand, clay, and cement.
20Breccia (BRECH ee uh)Like a conglomerate but formed from fragments which are angular and have sharp corners.
21SandstoneCoarse-grained rock formed from sand 2 mm to 1/16 mm in diameter.
22Shale Fine-grained rock, some small rock particles may be seen Usually clays, shows thin layering.
23MudstoneMade from mud, rock particles too small to see, thick layers
24Clastic sedimentary rock formations can reach great thicknesses. Navaho Sandstone, Utah
25Characteristics of Clastic Sediments Determined by the way sediments were transported.Four main agents: water, wind, ice, and gravity.Both the distance the sediment is moved and the agent that moves the sediment determine the characteristics.
26SortingThe tendency for air or water to separate sediments according to size.Due to the change in the speed of the agent that is moving the sediment.
27AngularityAs sediment particles are transported they collide with each other and objects in their path.In general, the farther sediments travel the finer (smaller) and smoother the particles of sediment become.
28Sedimentary Rock Features These allow scientists to identify the depositional environment, the setting in which sediment is deposited.Includes rivers, deltas, beaches, and oceans.
29StratificationOccurs when there is a change in the kind of sediment being deposited. The layers, or beds, vary in thickness depending on how long each type of sediment was being laid down. Most beds are horizontal.
30Cross-bedsSlanting layers that form within beds. Usually form in sand dunes or river beds.
31Graded BeddingDifferent sizes and shapes of sediment settle out in different levels in a bed (largest and most rounded on the bottom to smallest on top).
32Reverse BeddingHappens in mudflows, in which the smallest grains are on the bottom and the largest grains are on top.
33Ripple MarksFormed from the action of wind or water on sand or mud.
34Mud CracksFormed when muddy deposits dry and shrink to form cracks. Later sediments may fill in the cracks and preserve them in sedimentary rock.
35FossilsThe remains (hard parts) or traces (impressions) of ancient plants and animals.
36ConcretionsLumps, or nodules, of rock with a composition different from that of the main rock body.
37GeodesDissolved minerals can crystallize inside cavities (holes) in sedimentary rocks (igneous also).
38Assignment – Due Friday Directed Reading6.3 Key TermsTernary Diagram & Mineral Composition