2 Section 5-1 Review and Reinforce (p. 129) 1. Coarse-grained 2 Section 5-1 Review and Reinforce (p. 129) 1. Coarse-grained 2. Very small 3. Shape 4. Pattern 5. Glassy 6. Geologists observe the rock’s color and texture and determine its mineral composition. 7. Igneous rock forms from the cooling of molten rock. Sedimentary rock forms when particles of other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together.Metamorphic rock forms when an existing rock is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions. 8. Geologists use the scratch test, a test with an acid to determine whether the rock contains the mineral calcite, and a magnet test. 9. texture 10. grains
3 Section 5-2 Review and Reinforce (p. 133)1. Coarse-grained2. Porphyritic3. Glassy4. Fine-grained5. Lava that is low in silica usually forms darkcoloredrocks; magma that is high in silicausually forms light-colored rocks.6. Igneous rocks are hard, dense, and durable.7. Answers may vary. A typical answer mightmention granite as a building material, basaltas a construction gravel, and pumice as anabrasive in polishes.8. extrusive9. porphyritic10. intrusive
4 Section 5-3 Review and Reinforce (p. 137) 1. b, d, a, c 2. Clastic 3 Section 5-3 Review and Reinforce (p. 137) 1. b, d, a, c 2. Clastic 3. Organic 4. Clastic 5. Chemical 6. Organic 7. Clastic 8. Chemical 9. Clastic 10. d 11. f 12. a 13. e 14. c 15. b 16. h 17. g
5 Section 5-5 Review and Reinforce (p. 145) 1. mantle 2. pressure 3 Section 5-5 Review and Reinforce (p. 145) 1. mantle 2. pressure 3. mineral crystals 4. Pockets of magma rising the rough Earth’s crust can provide heat that can produce metamorphic rocks. 5. Geologists classify metamorphic rocks by the arrangement of the grains that make up the rocks. 6. Quartzite forms when weakly cemented quartz particles in sandstone recrystallize. 7. Marble has a fine, even grain; it is relatively easy to cut into thin slabs; and it can be easily polished. 8. Nonfoliated 9. Foliated 10. Foliated
6 Section 5-6 Review and Reinforce (p. 149) 1. Igneous rock 2 Section 5-6 Review and Reinforce (p. 149) 1. Igneous rock 2. Sedimentary rock 3. Pressure 4. Metamorphic rock 5. Magma 6. Constructive forces move rock through the rock cycle by making new igneous rock or building up Earth’s surface. Destructive forces move rock through the rock cycle when erosion begins the process of forming sedimentary rock or when subduction causes part of the crust to sink into the mantle. 7. Answers will vary. Students might describe any pathway that changes one type of rock into another. 8. Water and weather wear away the granite of the mountain, and sand grains from the granite are deposited on the ocean floor, where compaction and cementation change them to sandstone. If the sandstone is pushed deeper into the crust, heat and pressure change it into quartzite. 9. Plate movements push rocks back into the mantle, where they melt and become magma. They also cause the folding, faulting, and uplift of the crust. 10. Answers will vary. Sample answer: The rock cycle is the slow changing of rocks from one kind to another by the constructive and destructive forces on and below Earth’s surface.