Section 5-1 Review and Reinforce (p. 129) 1. Coarse-grained 2. Very small 3. Shape 4. Pattern 5. Glassy 6. Geologists observe the rocks color and texture and determine its mineral composition. 7. Igneous rock forms from the cooling of molten rock. Sedimentary rock forms when particles of other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together.Metamorphic rock forms when an existing rock is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions. 8. Geologists use the scratch test, a test with an acid to determine whether the rock contains the mineral calcite, and a magnet test. 9. texture 10. grains
Section 5-2 Review and Reinforce (p. 133) 1. Coarse-grained 2. Porphyritic 3. Glassy 4. Fine-grained 5. Lava that is low in silica usually forms darkcolored rocks; magma that is high in silica usually forms light-colored rocks. 6. Igneous rocks are hard, dense, and durable. 7. Answers may vary. A typical answer might mention granite as a building material, basalt as a construction gravel, and pumice as an abrasive in polishes. 8. extrusive 9. porphyritic 10. intrusive
Section 5-3 Review and Reinforce (p. 137) 1. b, d, a, c 2. Clastic 3. Organic 4. Clastic 5. Chemical 6. Organic 7. Clastic 8. Chemical 9. Clastic 10. d 11. f 12. a 13. e 14. c 15. b 16. h 17. g
Section 5-5 Review and Reinforce (p. 145) 1. mantle 2. pressure 3. mineral crystals 4. Pockets of magma rising the rough Earths crust can provide heat that can produce metamorphic rocks. 5. Geologists classify metamorphic rocks by the arrangement of the grains that make up the rocks. 6. Quartzite forms when weakly cemented quartz particles in sandstone recrystallize. 7. Marble has a fine, even grain; it is relatively easy to cut into thin slabs; and it can be easily polished. 8. Nonfoliated 9. Foliated 10. Foliated
Section 5-6 Review and Reinforce (p. 149) 1. Igneous rock 2. Sedimentary rock 3. Pressure 4. Metamorphic rock 5. Magma 6. Constructive forces move rock through the rock cycle by making new igneous rock or building up Earths surface. Destructive forces move rock through the rock cycle when erosion begins the process of forming sedimentary rock or when subduction causes part of the crust to sink into the mantle. 7. Answers will vary. Students might describe any pathway that changes one type of rock into another. 8. Water and weather wear away the granite of the mountain, and sand grains from the granite are deposited on the ocean floor, where compaction and cementation change them to sandstone. If the sandstone is pushed deeper into the crust, heat and pressure change it into quartzite. 9. Plate movements push rocks back into the mantle, where they melt and become magma. They also cause the folding, faulting, and uplift of the crust. 10. Answers will vary. Sample answer: The rock cycle is the slow changing of rocks from one kind to another by the constructive and destructive forces on and below Earths surface.