Presentation on theme: "VIZUALIZING EARTH HISTORY By Loren E. Babcock Chapter 2 Earth Materials and Features."— Presentation transcript:
VIZUALIZING EARTH HISTORY By Loren E. Babcock Chapter 2 Earth Materials and Features
Rocks and Minerals Describe the components of rocks. Define and distinguish rocks, minerals, and crystals. Rocks and minerals are the basic building blocks of the Earth. Both are key indicators of how Earth has developed through time. Rock – A rock is a mixture of minerals. Mineral – A mineral is a naturally occurring crystalline solid or a synthetic, chemically identical equivalent.
Rocks and Minerals Define biomineralization Biomineralization – Biomineralization is the secretion of minerals as bones, teeth, shells, external coverings, or other structures by biological organisms.
Rocks and Minerals Elements, ions, and atomic bonds The basic building blocks of minerals are atoms of chemical elements. Atoms - the smallest individual particles showing all the distinctive properties of a chemical element. The nucleus is at the center of the atom. The nucleus contains most of the mass of the atom, protons (positively charged particles) and neutrons (neutral particles).
Rocks and Minerals Elements, ions, and atomic bonds Four types of chemical bonding Ionic bond – In ionic bond one atom loses an electron from its outer shell to another atom. Covalent bonding – In covalent bonding electrons are shared, rather than exchanged between two atoms. Metallic bonds – In metallic bonds atoms share clouds of electrons. Electrons in the outer shells drift from one atom to another as a result of close packing of the atoms. Van der Waals bonds – Van der Waals are a weak secondary attraction bonds between electrically neutral molecules that have one positive end and one negative end.
Rocks and Minerals Isotopes The number of protons (positively charged particles) in an atom are always the same, the number of neutrons (neutral particles), however; could change giving an element different isotopes. The sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus gives an element its atomic mass (the weight of the electrons surrounding the nucleus is very small).
Common Rock-Forming Minerals Explain why the rock-forming minerals are important. Minerals that make up rocks are divided into six groups based on their chemical properties. About 20 rock-forming minerals are of primary importance for interpreting Earth history. The mineral groups that contribute most to the rock record are the silicates and the carbonates.
Common Rock-Forming Minerals Summarize the most important rock-forming minerals. Silicate mineral – A silicate mineral has a silicate tetrahedron (SiO 4 ) as the basic chemical property. Silicates are the dominant group in igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Carbonate mineral – These minerals have calcium, magnesium, iron, or other ions attached to a carbonate ion (CO 3 - ). They are important sedimentary rocks, and can form the metamorphic rock marble. Sulfate minerals – Sulfate minerals have calcium or other ions attached to a sulfate ion (SO 4 -2 ). Most rock-forming sulfate minerals, such as gypsum and anhydrite, occur in sedimentary rocks.
Common Rock-Forming Minerals Summarize the most important rock-forming minerals. Halide minerals – Halide minerals have positive ions such as sodium and potassium attached to negative ions such as chlorine and bromine. Most rock-forming halides occur in sedimentary rocks. Oxide minerals - Oxide minerals have metallic ions combined with oxygen. Oxides occur in igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Sulfide minerals - Sulfide minerals have metallic ions combined with sulfur. They occur in igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
The Rock Cycle Rock cycle – The rock cycle is a conceptual model that describes the origin, alteration, and destruction of rocks through the action of Earth processes. The rock cycle, describes the processes by which rocks are formed, decomposed, transported, modified, and formed again, is powered mostly by energy from the Earth’s internal heat and from the Sun. Cycles operate continuously, and have neither a beginning nor an end.
The Rock Cycle
Igneous rocks Magma - Molten rock, including any suspended crystals (mineral grains) and dissolved gases. Igneous rock – Igneous rocks are formed from the cooling and crystallization of magma.
The Rock Cycle Sedimentary rocks Sedimentary rock — Sedimentary rocks are usually layered, formed from sediments and minerals precipitated under aqueous conditions. Sediment — Sediments are unconsolidated particles of rock that have been transported by agents of erosion and unconsolidated particles formed as skeletal material through biomineralization.
The Rock Cycle Metamorphic rocks Metamorphic rock — These are rocks whose original mineralogy or texture has been transformed through any combination of heat, pressure, chemical environment (including hydrothermal fluids), or shearing stress. Metamorphic rocks — result from the changing of rocks through heat and pressure, which is commonly associated with tectonic activity.
Types of Rocks Differentiate between a descriptive classification system and a genetic classification system of rocks. Rocks can be classified in two ways: 1) a descriptive classification system - according to their texture or fabric and their composition, 2) and a genetic classification system – classify rocks according to their origin.
Types of Rocks IGNEOUS ROCKS AND PROCESSES Igneous rocks are formed through the cooling and solidification of magma, are classified into two broad groups based on their place of origin: intrusive (or plutonic) and extrusive (or volcanic).
Types of Rocks IGNEOUS ROCKS AND PROCESSES Depending on their chemical composition igneous rocks are classified in two main groups: Light-colored (or felsic) igneous rocks Dark-colored (mafic and ultramafic) igneous rocks
Types of Rocks SEDIMENTARY ROCKS AND PROCESSES Sedimentary rocks originate as unconsolidated particles that undergo lithification, or a change to rock. Sedimentary particles derive from three main sources: 1, fragments (clasts) produced by the weathering and erosion of preexisting rocks; 2, skeletal debris produced by organisms; and 3, crystals precipitated from water, and commonly mediated by the life activities of organisms.
Types of Rocks SEDIMENTARY ROCKS AND PROCESSES Lithification — Lithification involves the processes involved in changing sediments to rock. Sedimentary rocks are classified based on their composition. Using this method, the principal categories of sedimentary rocks are siliciclastic rocks, carbonate rocks, and other rocks.
Types of Rocks Sedimentary rocks Two main steps are involved in changing loose, unconsolidated sedimentary particles to solid rock: 1, deposition of sediments in layers; followed by 2, lithification (the processes responsible for converting sediments to sedimentary rocks).
Types of Rocks Sedimentary rocks Deposition of sediments, layer by layer, is a key feature of sedimentary strata— one of the primary distinguishing characteristics of sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary layering, which is also called bedding or lamination, is visible at various scales ranging upward from millimeter-scale layering.
Types of Rocks Sedimentary rock Lithification involves compaction of sediments and cementation. The weight of the overlying sediment causes layers below to become compacted, which results in a light shifting of the grains and reduction of many pore spaces. Cementation involves the precipitation of minerals out of water. As cementation proceeds, thin mineral deposits grow on and between sediment grains, and those minerals both glue grains together and further reduce the pore spaces between grains.
Types of Rocks METAMORPHIC ROCKS AND PROCESSES Metamorphic rocks form by the alteration of other rocks at high temperatures and pressures. Metamorphism causes chemical (mineralogical) and textural changes in igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks. Geologists describe metamorphism in terms of grades (low, intermediate, and high) that reflect temperature-pressure conditions during the time that rocks are altered.
Types of Rocks METAMORPHIC ROCKS AND PROCESSES A common distinguishing characteristic of metamorphic rocks is foliation. Foliation is due to an alignment of crystals that grow perpendicular to the direction of stress applied to the rock during metamorphism.
Types of Rocks METAMORPHIC ROCKS AND PROCESSES
Types of Rocks METAMORPHIC ROCKS AND PROCESSES Low-grade metamorphism begins between 100˚C and 200˚C, and at about 1000 atm (atmospheres) of pressure. Low-grade metamorphic rocks tend to be finely crystalline (fine-grained), and individual crystals usually need magnification to become visible. High-grade metamorphism usually occurs above 500˚C and above 5000 atm of pressure. High-grade metamorphic rocks tend to be coarsely crystalline, and individual crystals are readily visible without magnification. Foliation in coarsely crystalline rocks is often wavy or distorted.
Types of Rocks METAMORPHIC ROCKS AND PROCESSES Metamorphism of granitic rocks (granite and rhyolite) also results in gneiss. Metamorphism of basaltic rocks (basalt and gabbro) results in greenschist (low-grade metamorphism); amphibolite (intermediate grade of metamorphism); and granulite (high-grade metamorphism).
Types of Rocks METAMORPHIC ROCKS AND PROCESSES Regional metamorphism is associated with the compressional stresses of mountain building and subduction zones. Contact metamorphism occurs where hot granitic magma rises through preexisting rock (country rock) and releases heat to the rocks it intrudes. Burial metamorphism occurs in basins that subside under the great pressure of accumulating sedimentary layers. Hydrothermal metamorphism occurs where hot waters pass through cracks in rocks, and may be associated with other areas where metamorphism of rock occurs.