2What is a rock?RockMixture of minerals, rock fragments, volcanic glass, organic material, or other natural materials.
3What is a rock?Rock CycleCycle that demonstrates the three types of rock and the processes that create and change them.
4What is a rock?Matter and the Rock CycleChanges that occur in the rock cycle never create or destroy matter.Elements that form the rocks are simply redistributed.
5Formation of Igneous Rocks Form when magma cools and hardens.
6Formation of Igneous Rocks MagmaForms when heat and pressure in the interior of the earth melt rock.Temps of magma range from 650 to 1200 degrees CelsiusBecause magma is less dense than surrounding solid rock it is forced upward.Magma that has erupted to the surface of the earth is called lava.
7Formation of Igneous Rocks Intrusive RocksIgneous rocks that form beneath the surface of the earth.Cool very slowly which results in large mineral grains (coarse-grained).
8Formation of Igneous Rocks Extrusive RocksForm when lava cools on the surface of the earth.Cool rapidly resulting in small mineral grains (fine-grained).Volcanic glass is a type of extrusive igneous rock with no to few mineral grainsVery rapid cooling
9Classifying Igneous Rocks ClassificationClassified as intrusive or extrusiveClassified into three families based on composition of magma from which they formed.BasalticGraniticAndesitic
10Classifying Igneous Rocks Basaltic RocksDark-colored, denseForm from magma low in silica and high in magnesium and ironExamples: Hawaii, moon
11Classifying Igneous Rocks Granitic RocksLight-colored, lower densityForm from magma rich in silica
12Classifying Igneous Rocks Andesitic RocksForm from magmas in between felsic (granitic) and mafic (basaltic).
13Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Rocks that have been changed by high temperature, high pressure, or hot fluids.The rock from which the metamorphic rock formed is called the parent rock.
14Classifying Metamorphic Rocks ClassificationClassified according to mineral composition and texture.FoliatedMineral grains of the rock are arranged in parallel layers.NonfoliatedMineral grains of the rock are not arranged in layers.
15Formation of Sedimentary Rocks Form when sediments are pressed and cemented together or when minerals form from solution.Sediments are loose materials such as rock fragments, mineral grains, and organics (bits of shell, etc).Come from rock that has been eroded.
16Classifying Sedimentary Rocks ClassificationClassified by the type of sediments in the rock and how the rock formed.DetritalChemicalOrganic
17Detrital Sedimentary Rocks FormationFormed from pieces of other rock that have been compacted or cemented together.When exposed to the air, water, and wind rock is broken down through the process of weathering.Sediments can be moved through erosion to new locations where they are deposited.
18Detrital Sedimentary Rocks CompactionAs sediments are deposited, sediment layers on top put pressure on sediment layers below them, eventually pressing the sediments into rock.
19Detrital Sedimentary Rocks CementationAs water moves through rocks, minerals are dissolved in the water.The water carries the dissolved minerals through cracks in rock.These minerals (such as quartz, calcite, or hematite) can be deposited between pieces of sediment, cementing them into rock.
20Detrital Sedimentary Rocks Further classificationDetrital sedimentary rocks are further classified by the shape and size of sediments that form them.
21Chemical Sedimentary Rocks FormationForm when dissolved minerals come out of solution.LimestoneCalcium carbonate is dissolved in ocean water and precipitates out as calcite, forming limestone.Rock SaltWater rich in salts leave the mineral halite when the water evaporates, forming deposits of rock salt
22Organic Sedimentary Rocks FormationRocks that are made from the remains of once living thingsFossil-rich limestoneChalkConsists of microscopic shells.CoalFormed from plant remains buried in swamps.The plant remains are changed into coal by microscopic organisms and pressure.