# Training and Presentation

## Presentation on theme: "Training and Presentation"— Presentation transcript:

Training and Presentation
Field Training

Contents Brief overview of GNSS
Overview of the Terralite constellation Terralite constellation Hardware Firmware Versions Software Overview Trouble shooting

Brief overview of GNSS Overview of GPS Ranges Timing Timing Errors
Geometry Atmospheric Conditions RTK Satellite constellations

Overview of GPS Global Positioning System (GPS)
Trimble Tutorial on GPS (http://www.trimble.com/gps/howgps.shtml) A minimum of 4 satellites are required to provide a unique solution Satellites transit signals to the earth from known orbits. At any point in time the satellites position is known relative to the earth. The satellites positions are carefully monitored by ground station which ensure that the precise location of the satellites are always known. As we know the position of the satellites and if we knew the ground position of a point we could calculate the distance between the satellites and the ground point. Alternatively if we know the speed of the satellites signals and the time it took them to reach the ground point we could also calculate the distance between the satellites. Also if we knew the distances from several satellite to a ground point we could determine the coordinates of that point. In fact we can calculate a unique solution using four satellites.

Ranges We do know the Velocity of the Satellites signals
To get the time travelled we need to synchronize the clock in our receiver on the ground with the clocks in the Satellites. Thus satellite positioning is based on clocks! Suppose there was a way to get both the satellite and the receiver to start playing "The Star Spangled Banner" at precisely 12 noon. If sound could reach us from space (which, of course, is ridiculous) then standing at the receiver we'd hear two versions of the Star Spangled Banner, one from our receiver and one from the satellite. These two versions would be out of sync. The version coming from the satellite would be a little delayed because it had to travel more than 11,000 miles. If we wanted to see just how delayed the satellite's version was, we could start delaying the receiver's version until they fell into perfect sync. The amount we have to shift back the receiver's version is equal to the travel time of the satellite's version. So we just multiply that time times the speed of light and BINGO! we've got our distance to the satellite.

Timing Errors Despite having perfect synchronisation there are still some errors that affect the accuracy. Errors occur due to changes in the speed of the satellite signal as it passes through the earths atmosphere. The use of modelling can reduce these. Differences between the expected and actual orbits also has an affect. As do and errors in the satellite clocks. Multipath is where signals bounce of surfaces and do not take the direct line of sight to enter the receiver. These errors cause an autonomous solution and the position will jump every second. It will jump any where up to 10m in any direction from the true value.

Geometry Poor Geometry Good Geometry
The Quality of the Geometry is measured by DOP values. A common quoted DOP value is PDOP which means Position Dilution of precision. Lower values for PDOP are better. If the constellation is bunched the solution will be weaker and the accuracy will be reduced. This is reflected in a high PDOP value. If the constellation is spread giving good spacing's and angles around the Antenna the solution will be stronger and have a higher accuracy. This is reflected in a low PDOP. Since satellites move the PDOP is constantly changing.

Atmospheric Conditions
Relatively close locations have similar atmospheric conditions Here we have a view of the world from 20,000 km about the same as the GPS Satellites orbit. We also have an image of a mine. The mine can not be distinguished from the satellite view. Although the mine is large it falls under an incredibly small part of the satellite signals footprint. We can use this to out advantage as we can say that for areas 10km either side of a point the satellite signal passes through very similar atmospheric conditions and the errors caused by the atmosphere will be similar to all points within this radius.

RTK Corrections for the Satellite are sent to the GNSS Receivers
RTK (Real Time kinematic ) uses the fact that the same errors will be common to points within km of each other. The RTK Base Station is installed and the antennas position is surveyed. The RTK Base now has a known position. The RTK Base station uses the incoming satellite to calculate a correction. The difference between the known point and the autonomous position from the satellites is the amount we need to correct. This correction is sent to the RTK receivers. The receivers apply the correction and their position goes from autonomous accuracy to RTK accuracy. From m to a couple of centimetres. Thus for an accurate position we need to have enough satellites for a solution and the RTK correction. Corrections for the Satellite are sent to the GNSS Receivers

Satellite constellations
GPS US system Glonass - Russian system Galileo - European Union system Compass - Chinese system QZSS - Japanese system The various satellite systems are based on the same principles. Only the GPS and Glonass systems are available at present. The GPS constellation is complete and fully operational. To see its current status go to The Glonass constellation is not always complete to see the status of the Glonass constellation go to

Terralite constellation Overview

Terralite constellation
The Terralite constellation consists of Terralite XPS transmitters and XPS enabled base station/stations and XPS capable receivers and Antennas. An additional XPS/GNSS base station is used in split base station solutions.

Augmentation The Matrix above shows the minimum number of signals required for a solution The Matrix presented here shows the augmentation required for different numbers of satellite signals available. It assumes that there is good geometry provided by the satellites and Terralites. The Matrix above is the GNSS matrix. A solution may be available with one less satellite if all the satellites are GPS or Glonass. However there still needs to be a minimum of one satellite available. Manual A Page 41

Terralite constellation designs
There are three Constellation designs Basic Standard Network The Matrix above shows the functionality of the three constellation designs. Depending on your sites topography and mining schedule a particular constellation will be preferred. Manual A Page 10

Basic Constellation Manual 602-0077-02-A Page 61
The Basic constellation uses a single base station and can track 6 Terralites. Any satellites not visible to the reference station can not be used. Manual A Page 61

Standard Constellation
The standard Constellation uses two reference stations. One primarily for XPS signals and one for GNSS signals. This constellation should allow for any visible signal to be used by the machines. Manual A Page 63

Network Constellation
The Network Constellation uses N+1 reference stations. Where N is the number of pits. Each pit will have a base to receive XPS signals and an additional one for GNSS signals. Using the Network constellation a machine can go from one pit to another pit and use the appropriate XPS base for its location. Manual A Page 65

Hardware

IX100G Reference Station/Integrity Monitor (Base Station)
Provides a corrections to enable High Precision positions The IX100G is a GNSS/XPS capable reference station. This unit provides the corrections which are then sent to the receivers in order to achieve high precision positions. Manual A Page 25

TX100 XPS transmitter Provides XPS signals which are used by the Reference station and the Receivers for High Precision positioning. The XPS Transmitter is known as a Terralite. It sends the XPS signals into the pit. It is self surveying and just needs to be pointed appropriately. Manual A Page 23

MX100G GNSS + XPS enabled receivers
Provides High Precision positions for machine control The MX100G receiver tracks Trimble’s proprietary XPS signals in addition to GPS and GLONASS An unlimited number of MX100G receiver operators can utilize the combined constellation of GPS, GLONASS, and ground-based Terralite XPS Transmit Stations, to provide seamless positioning data throughout the mine. Manual A Page 20

AX100G Antenna capable of receiving GNSS and XPS Signals Manual
The AX100G is the Antenna used by both the MXG’s and IXG’s. Manual A Page 22

Connectors RED – XPS Orange – Power Yellow – GPS Red to Red
DO NOT CROSS CABLES Red to Red Orange to Orange Yellow to Yellow The MX100G and the IX100G’s get connected to AX100G’s. There are three cables that need to be connected. It is important that you do not cross colours. You should not attach cables whilst the units are powered. The RED connector is used for XPS signals The Orange connector is used for Power The Yellow connector is used for GPS signals Crossing colour streams may result in damage to the units

Firmware Versions

Firmware 3.1 Capabilities
Baseline software runs on new hardware: MX100G, IX100G GLONASS (with Reference) Supports up to 8 Terralites Firmware 3.1 would be suitable for a single reference station using the latest hardware and increased Terralite coverage

Firmware 3.2 Capabilities
Baseline software runs on new hardware: MX100G, IX100G GLONASS (with Reference) Supports up to 8 Terralites Split Reference Multi Pit XPS Firmware 3.2 provides all the benefits of 3.1 plus it has split reference capabilities and can support the integration of multiple XPS constellations

Software Overview

Home Screen – IX100G Manual 602-0077-02-A Page 83
The IX100G home page looks similar to the MX100G’s. In this case the IX100G is being used as a GNSS base. We can tell this from the XPS Network status being disabled. As the GNSS base will operate within all XPS constellations on site it is not exclusive to any and thus it is not linked to any one constellation. The other main difference is that the Position Mode will always be Autonomous. This is because the Base station is producing the RTK correction and not receiving it. Manual A Page 83

Home Screen – TX100 Manual 602-0077-02-A Page 123
The TX100 home screen provides a snap shot of information relevant to Terralites. The differences between the TX and MX home page is that TX has a unique slot number for each Terralite and has two fields in the position mode. This is because the Terralites have two GPS receivers on them. The status of each of them can be seen on the home page. Manual A Page 123

Diagnostics Menu MX100G, IX100G and TX100 Signal View Boot Log
Event Log Sensor Log CPU Uptime RTK Uptime MX100G and IX100G Terralite Survey Status IX100G RTK Subscriber List The Diagnostics Menu (click on Diagnostics) has a number of useful tools: All units have the following choices: Signal View Boot Log Event Log CPU Uptime RTK Uptime Temperature Log Voltage Log The MX100 Receivers and IX100 Reference Station/Integrity Monitor also have: Terralite Survey Status The IX100 Reference Station/Integrity Monitor only: RTK Subscriber List

Signal View – Position (MX100G)
The Signal View screen provides more in depth information on the health of the unit. The PositionCoordinates portion shows: Latitude of the unit in decimal degrees. Longitude of the unit in decimal degrees. Height of the unit - Ellipsoidal Height Positioning Mode – Hybrid fine, Hybrid course, GPS fixed, GPS float, Autonomous RTK Age (Sec) -The amount of time in Seconds since the last Correction was received PDOP – the geometry of the of the signal sources. This is the position section of Signal view for an MX100G. We can tell it is an MXG because it is in fixed mode and there is only one senor under mode. We can change the Position coordinates. By default the Signal view page shows Latitude and Longitude in WGS84 decimal degrees in meters, other options are WGS84 [d.d](feet), WGS84[d.d](US survey feet) The international foot is meters and the US survey foot is 1200⁄3937 meters. Other formats are WGS84[d.m.m](meter), WGS84[d.m.m](feet), WGS84[d.m.m](US survey feet),WGS84[d.m.s.s](meter), WGS84[d.m.s.s](feet), WGS84[d.m.s.s](US survey feet), East-North-Up [meter], East-North-Up [feet], East-North-Up [US survey feet] Hgt [m] – WGS84 altitude (ellipsoidal height) Positioning Mode is the status that the unit is currently in. Options for a MX100G are, Hybrid Fine – The system is tracking GPS and XPS. Accuracy < 10 cm. Hybrid Coarse – The system is tracking GPS and XPS. Accuracy < 30 cm. GPS Fixed – The system has RTK (Real Time Kinematic. Accuracy < 3 cm. GPS Float – The unit is on its way to being fixed. Accuracy < 1 m. Autonomous – The system is tracking satellites but without any correction. Accuracy < 30 m. The IX100 will always be Autonomous mode. RTK AGE – If an RTK message is not received every second then there is either latency or a packet drop. Both of these affect the performance of the system. You would like the value to be 1 or less PDOP - The current Position Dilution of Precision value. The lower this number, the better. It is a function of the satellite geometry. The Signal View screen is dynamic. It updates continuously and automatically.

Signal View – Terralites (MX100G)
SLT is the slot number observed. Each Terralite has a unique slot number. XPS SS is the signal strength of the XPS signal, a value of more than 102 is required. XPS AG is the Auto Gain, a value of more than 100 is required. REF SS/AG is the signal strength and Auto Gain being observed by the reference station. The Sky plot shows you the position of Terralites (Green) and satellites (Blue) with respect to the unit you are logged onto. Bold numbers in the SLT column are used in the position solution. In order for a Terralite signal to be used it must be observed by the reference station. The SS needs to be more than 102 and AG needs to be more than 100 on both the reference station and MX100 for it to be used in a solution. The Sky plot is similar to a contour map. The largest circle is a horizon and each small circle progressively higher. The intersection of the crosshairs would be directly above you. Satellite Vehicle numbers 7 an 75 are high in the sky in the Sky plot shown. The XPS Terralite Signals section has the following fields: SLT – The slot number of the Terralites. SLT 1 is Terralite 1, SLT 2 is Terralite 2, etc. XPS SS/AG – The Signal Strength/Auto Gain values of the XPS signals (from the Terralites). SS values should always be greater than 102 (>102). The AG values should always be greater than 100 (>100). Ref SS/AG - The Signal Strength/Auto Gain values of the XPS signals at the IX100 Reference Station/Integrity Monitor. SS values should always be greater than 102 (>102). The AG values should always be greater than 100 (>100). A graphical view of the SS/AG. The top bar shows the SS and AG from the Terralite, the lower bar shows the SS and AG as seen by the IX100 Reference Station/Integrity Monitor. * Note: On a MX-100 if a number in the SLT field is bold, that Terralite is being used in the solution. The SLT field is made of a two digit number. The first number is the XPS network and the second number is the Terralites slot number. The Signal View screen is dynamic. It updates continuously and automatically.

Signal View – Satellites (MX100G)
L1 Greater than 10 L2 Greater than 5 Bold Numbers are Signals being used The lower part of the Signal View screen on the IX100 Reference Station/Integrity Monitor and the MX100 receiver shows the signal strengths of the GNSS L1/L2 Signals (from the available satellites). Ant1 L1/L2 – The strengths of the L1 and L2 signals from the satellite, as seen by the antenna on the device. To be used, the L1 signal strength should be greater than 10 (>10), and the L2 signal strength should be greater than 5 (>5). Ant2 L1/L2 – These fields should be 0, as the IX100 and MX100 have only one antenna. Graphical representation of the L1/L2 signals. The L1 is the upper bar, the L2 is the lower bar. Ref L1/L2 - The strengths of the L1 and L2 signals from the satellite, as seen by the antenna on the IX100 Reference Station/Integrity Monitor. To be used, the L1 signal strength should be greater than 10 (>10), and the L2 signal strength should be greater than 5 (>5). Graphical representation of the L1/L2 signals at the IX100 Reference Station/Integrity Monitor . The L1 is the upper bar, the L2 is the lower bar. * Important note: In order for a satellite to be used in solution by an MX100, it MUST be visible and have adequate signal strength at the IX100 Reference Station/Integrity Monitor. The Signal View screen is dynamic. It updates continuously and automatically.

Signal View – Receiver Status (MX100G, IX100G)
MXG’s and IXG’s operate at vdc but can accept inputs of 10 – 34 vdc RCORate ± 3.0 Operating Temperature -20º C to +60º C This is the receiver status of an MX100G which is the same as an IX100G. Temperature events will occur at above 60 degrees The RCORate should be within ± 3.0

Signal View – Position (TX100)
The Signal View screen provides more in depth information on the health of the unit. The Position Coordinates portion shows: Latitude of the unit in decimal degrees. Longitude of the unit in decimal degrees. Height of the unit - Ellipsoidal Height Positioning Mode – GPS fixed, GPS float, Autonomous RTK Age (Sec) -The amount of time in Seconds since the last Correction was received PDOP – the geometry of the of the signal sources. This is the position coordinate section of Signal view from a TX100. Note the Two Ant modes one for each GPS antenna. We can change the Position coordinates. By default the Signal view page shows Latitude and Longitude in WGS84 decimal degrees in meters, other options are WGS84 [d.d](feet), WGS84[d.d](US survey feet) The international foot is meters and the US survey foot is 1200⁄3937 meters. Other formats are WGS84[d.m.m](meter), WGS84[d.m.m](feet), WGS84[d.m.m](US survey feet),WGS84[d.m.s.s](meter), WGS84[d.m.s.s](feet), WGS84[d.m.s.s](US survey feet), East-North-Up [meter], East-North-Up [feet], East-North-Up [US survey feet] Hgt [m] – WGS84 altitude (ellipsoidal height) Positioning Mode is the status that the unit is currently in. Options for a TX100 are, GPS Fixed – The system has RTK (Real Time Kinematic. Accuracy < 3 cm. GPS Float – The unit is on its way to being fixed. Accuracy < 1 m. Autonomous – The system is tracking satellites but without any correction. Accuracy < 30 m.

Signal View – Terralites (TX100)
Terralites do not track Terralites SS values should be greater than 102 AG values should be greater than 100 This is the Terralite signal section of signal view for a Terralite. Note that you only see one set of XPS signals. Not the two signals per slot that you see on MXG’s and IXG’s. This is because Terralites do not use or receive XPS signals. The expected values for SS are greater than 102 and for AG they should be greater than 100. If the Terralite values are lower you should adjust the pointing of the Terralite. Manual A Page 126

Signal View – Satellites (TX100)
L1 Greater than 10 L2 Greater than 5 Bold Numbers are Signals being used The Signal section of Signal view shows the Satellite signals available and those being used. You will notice that there are four signals Per channel. Each satellite is being used by both GPS antennas on the Terralite. Since there are two antenna the Terralite will see 2 L1 and 2 L2 signals. This is represented by the green bars for antenna one and the Blue bars for antenna two. The same values for satellite signals apply. L1 should be greater than 10 and L2 should be greater than 5. The Bold signals are the ones currently being used in the position solution. Manual A Page 128

Signal View – Receiver Status (TX100)
TX100 operate at vdc but can accept inputs of 10 – 34 vdc RCORate of ± 3 are good At temperatures above 60 degrees C an event will be logged in the event log. Power Requirements Power. 24W, 10 to 34 VDC Environmental Temperature Operating. –20º C to +60º C Storage. –30º C to +80º C Humidity. Humidity 100% condensing

Signal View – Position (IX100)
The Signal View screen provides more in depth information on the health of the unit. The Position Coordinates portion shows: Latitude of the unit in decimal degrees. Longitude of the unit in decimal degrees. Height of the unit - Ellipsoidal Height Positioning Mode –will always be Autonomous PDOP – the geometry of the of the signal sources. This is the position section of Signal view for an IX100G. The IX100G will always display Autonomous as it supply's the correction and does not receive it. We can change the Position coordinates. By default the Signal view page shows Latitude and Longitude in WGS84 decimal degrees in meters, other options are WGS84 [d.d](feet), WGS84[d.d](US survey feet) The international foot is meters and the US survey foot is 1200⁄3937 meters. Other formats are WGS84[d.m.m](meter), WGS84[d.m.m](feet), WGS84[d.m.m](US survey feet),WGS84[d.m.s.s](meter), WGS84[d.m.s.s](feet), WGS84[d.m.s.s](US survey feet), East-North-Up [meter], East-North-Up [feet], East-North-Up [US survey feet] Hgt [m] – WGS84 altitude (ellipsoidal height) Autonomous – The system is tracking satellites but without any correction. Accuracy < 30 m. The IX100 will always be Autonomous mode. The Signal View screen is dynamic. It updates continuously and automatically. Manual A Page 85

Signal View – Terralites (IX100)
Terralites do not track Terralites SS values should be greater than 102 AG values should be greater than 100 The IX100G acting as a XPS base will show the strength of the XPS signals. Since it is the reference station the values are repeated in the REF SS/AG section. We want to see values for SS above 102 and for AG above 100. Manual A Page 85

Signal View – Satellites (IX100)
L1 Greater than 10 L2 Greater than 5 Bold Numbers are Signals being used The satellite Signal section of the signal view also repeats the signal values under the Ref section. The Bold values are the ones which are having corrections broadcast. The L1 values should be greater than 10 and L2 values should be greater than 5. Manual A Page 87

Signal View – Receiver Status (IX100G)
The RCORate should be within ± 3.0 This is the receiver status of an IX100G which is the same as an MX100G. Temperature events will occur at above 60 degrees The RCORate should be within ± 3.0 Manual A Page 87

Boot Log Shows status of current boot. Six stages in the boot sequence
Should show UP AND RUNNING If any of the stages failure contact your Trimble representative. The Boot Log shows the boot status of the device. There are six stages in booting a device. Every device should show up and running at the bottom of the Boot Log. If it freezes before UP AND RUNNING, note the last stage completed and contact your Trimble representative. This is a static page. Before contacting Trimble, refresh the screen (F5 or the refresh button on your browser) a few times to see if it goes to UP AND RUNNING. Manual A Page 89, 128

Event Log Manual 602-0077-02-A Page 90, 130
The event log displays significant events. The log is not customizable. Only events that exceed the manufactures default settings are entered into the event log. The Event Log shows: Error Warning Status Event Log Categories are: Processing Output Reference Temperature Voltage UI (User Interaction) Network Boot By default, the Event Log window opens showing the Past 3 Days. If you want more, click on the drop down arrow next to Past 3 Days and select Past 7 Days of Past 30 Days, then click on View Log. The Event Log is a static screen. To update it, refresh the screen (either F5 or the refresh button on your browser). Manual A Page 90, 130

CPU Uptime CPU Uptime shows the amount of time the unit has been operational. Manual A Page 92, 132 CPU Uptime shows a history of the uptime of the unit: A drop down menu allows for viewing data from different months Start Time - The time the unit is started End Time - The time the unit stops Duration How long the unit was running Every time the unit is rebooted it starts a new record

RTK Uptime RTK Uptime shows how long RTK has been working
It also shows the modes and percentages for this session. The RTK Uptime log shows a history of the RTK Engine. A drop down menu allows for viewing data from different months Each record has the following fields: Start Time – The date and time the RTK engine started (Year-Month-Day Hour.Minute). End Time – The date and time the RTK engine stopped (Year-Month-Day Hour.Minute). The current RTK engine will show “up and running”. Duration – The length of time the RTK engine was running (Days, Hours, Minutes, Seconds) No Solution – The percentage of time the unit had no solution. Autonomous – The percentage of time the unit was in Autonomous mode. GPS Float – The percentage of time the unit was in GPS Float mode. GPS Fixed – The percentage of time the unit was in GPS Fixed mode. Hybrid Coarse – The percentage of time the unit was in Hybrid Coarse mode. Hybrid Fine – The percentage of time the unit was in Hybrid Fine mode. The RTK Uptime screen is static. To update it, refresh the screen (either F5 or the refresh button on your browser). The desired mode for a MX-100 is Hybrid Fine, for a TX-100 is GPS Fixed and the IX-100 is Autonomous. Manual A Page 93, 134

Sensor Log The Temperature and Voltage Are recorded in a single file.
Logs are written daily and different months can be selected by using the drop down menu The Sensor Log files keep a record of the temperature and voltage of the unit. The file is written to every minute after every day a new record is made. If the unit is rebooted it will make a new record as some as the unit is up. Select the month which you want to view. Excessive temperature can cause undesirable results. Excessive Voltage will destroy the unit. The power should with in range volts and regulated well for MXG’s. Manual A Page 91, 131

Terralite Survey Status
Terralites need to have been Surveyed in order to be used. Provides a central location to check the location of all Terralites and check for some configuration issues. The XPS Net defines which net the Terralites are in. The slot numbers need to be unique for each network. The Serial numbers of each Terralite. The Latitude, Longitude and Height. The Bearing the Terralite is facing. The last time the information was updated. Manual A Page 94

TL Network Select Manual 602-0077-02-A Page 95
The Terralite Network Select shows the status of TX100 Terralites configuration. •Slot display – Terralite time slot assignment. •Serial Number display – Terralite serial number. •Beam Semi Angle [deg] display – The XPS beam angle boundary to use Terralite in network selection, measured from Terralite heading through the axis of XPS transmit antenna. •Max/Min Range [m] display – The maximum and minimum range boundaries to use Terralite in network selection. •Max/Min Depth [m] display – The maximum and minimum depth boundaries to use Terralite in network selection. Zero depth is equal height with Terralite. •Spare0 display – Reserved parameter. •Spare1 display – Reserved parameter. •Spare2 display – Reserved parameter. •Update display – Shows the time and date of the last data acquisition. Manual A Page 95

RTK Packet Stats Manual 602-0077-02-A Page 136

RTK Subscribers List (IX)
The subscription list only applies when using subscription mode for Differential Correction. It shows the IP address and the Subscription Time Manual A Page 96 The RTK Subscriber List is available on the IX100 Reference Station/Integrity Monitor. The RTK Subscriber List shows: RTK Uptime – The amount of time that the RTK engine has been up on the IX100. The Channel Number of the subscriber. The IP Address of the subscriber. The Subscription time of each device

Diff Correction XPS Network ID Network Select XPS Aided Search Data Logging Elevation Mask PDOP Mask Site & Machine IX100 only Reference Position

Configuration File The configuration file contains the current settings. The top part of the Configuration file has the current settings used by the receiver. You can check the settings for all settings in this file. Many of the settings do not have a user interface and will be configured to your sites requirements. The user configurable settings can be checked using this file of from the location that they are configured. Manual A Page 99, 140

Network IP Address The network communications setting will be provided by the sites IT department. For IP based communications you will need an IP Address, Subnet Mask and Default Gateway The Network communications values will need to be obtained from the site IT department. The values used will need to be paired with IP radios. The IP address is unique to the device, The subnet mask defines what address it can communicate with without the need to be forwarded to another subnet. The default gateway is the address the device will go to for addresses outside of its own subnet. Manual A Page 102, 142

Transmitter Slot (TX only)
Each Terralite has a unique slot number. The transmitter slot needs to be enabled in order to transmit XPS signals. Do not enable the Transmitter until the unit is installed. The default is off. When disable is selected the unit will not transmit. Conversely if enable is selected it will transmit. Select the proper slot number from the pull-down list. Each Terralite must have a unique slot number. If there are two Terralites with the same slot number there may be undesirable results. A reboot is not required for the changes to take effect. Manual A Page 149

FCC License (TX only) In side United States you will enter the FCC license number here Outside the US this setting is not required A license is required to operate the transmitters on the Terralite in the USA. FCC Licenses are required for each site and must be obtained prior to commissioning the constellation. Manual A Page 150

Differential Correction
Sets the source of the RTK corrections. Supported modes are Subscription, Multicast and Unicast Multiple XPS networks are also supported. The IP address needs to be set to the source of the corrections. In subscription mode that will be the base stations. In Unicast mode that will be the unicast server. The allowable port number range is 1024 to The Default is The port setting needs to match the one in the base station. The IP address set here is for RTK correction only. Any mistakes will mean no RTK correction. The protocol can not be altered at this time. CAVEAT: Prior to selecting which UDP port number to use, check and verify that no other device is currently using that port. Manual A Page 143, 145

Differential Correction - IX
Sets the method for sending RTK corrections To broadcast the differential correction via the IP network. Select the mode for the corrections. With Subscription the receivers communicate directly with the base on the selected port number. With Multicast and unicast the receivers communicate with a server which forwards the correction from the base station. With serial the correction is sent to a device using the parameters set. Manual A Page 103

Position Output The position output is used to interface with the vendors software. This information is supplied by the vendor This screen is used to send the Trimble positional information to the guidance system. Select Ethernet Port and port number used by the vendors. Select Client IP/Port and enter the IP address and port required by the vendors. The protocol selected is the format the position information is sent to the third party machine control system. An interface has been written for the receiver output to be used by the third party. This interface is based around the protocol selected. PNVTGNS – Trimble Combined Solution Position Report GNGST – GNSS Pseudorange Error Statistics PNVTGSA- GXA – DOP and Active Satellites PNVTGSV– GPS Satellites and TX100 Terralite™ Transmitters in View GNZDA-Date time data GNVTG- Velocity and heading data The output format is the amount which messages are sent and how often. We can output the information upto 5 times per second. Manual A Page 105

Position Output (Submit Changes) (MX )
Select Restart RTK for the changes to take effect After you submit changes for position output you will need to Restart RTK in order for them to take affect.

XPS Network ID (MX, TX and IX)
This option is to select the XPS Network that the unit will participate in. If the wrong option is selected the unit will not be able to function in the appropriate network. Most sites have a single XPS Network, However a site may have multiple XPS networks to cater for multiple pits or unique pit shells Manual A Page 104, 147

Network Select The Network Select Parameters are for multiple XPS network sites •Select By Percent checkbox – When in Auto Network Select mode, the network used is the one with the highest percentage of Terralite transmitters in view. If not selected, the network used is the one with the greater number of Terralite transmitters in view. •Range Ratio checkbox – When in Auto Network Select mode, the ratio of ranges between a rover and two Terralite transmitters in the same slot, but on different networks, by which the rover chooses one network over the other. If not select, default value 1.0 is used. •Range Ratio display field – Enables changing the value from the default setting. Manual A Page 98

XPS Aided Search The XPS Aided Search is used for multiple XPS network sites In order to use automatic XPS network selection we need to enable the XPS Aided Search.

Data Logging (MX, TX and IX)
Recording the NMEA string is useful for diagnostics by Trimble Engineers The NMEA string contains the information useful for diagnostics. The NMEA file can be used to examine satellite and Terralite signal data. Note: What is recorded in the NMEA string is set in the Position Output section of the configuration menu. This information can be used by support personnel. Manual A Page 108,154

Elevation Mask (MX, TX and IX)
The elevation mask is the cut off angle for satellites. Any Satellite lower than the mask will not be used. Satellites that are at a lower elevation are not used. This is because the lower the satellite means the signal travels through more troposphere and ionosphere. This effects the signal and it is best that they are not used. Trimble uses a 7 degree elevation mask. This means that only satellites that are 7 degrees above the horizon are used. Manual A Page 108, 154

PDOP Mask (MX, TX and IX) Position Dilution of Precision. The lower the value the better. A large PDOP will mean a lesser solution. Setting the PDOP mask rejects solutions above that value. The PDOP is influenced buy the Geometry of the satellites. The better the Geometry the better the PDOP, The lower the PDOP the better. Satellites that are bunched together do not provide good geometry. A good geometry would be Satellites scattered all around the Ax100G providing good intersections. Trimble default is a PDOP Mask of 16. Manual A Page 109, 155

Reference Position (IX Only)
The surveyed position of the base is very important. Ensure you enter the correct coordinates and verify this via a survey. The Base station needs to be surveyed. In order to survey the base station the following steps should be done. Disconnect the YELLOW antenna cable from the base receiver. Using the DC block, connect the cable to your GPS receiver. Record the WGS-84 (not local or anything else) position. Enter the new coordinate in the base receiver under configuration Reference Station Position. Reboot the reference station. Although not necessary, reboot all of the rovers and Terralites. Verify the new position via a comparison of a point using the newly entered position against that of the mines GPS receiver. Manual A Page 110

Site and Machine ( MX,TX, IX)
Used to Identify the unit when you have logged in. Specifying the site and machine in the dialogue boxes aids identification when you have logged into the unit. The Site and machine information will be displayed under the menu bar on each screen. Manual A Page 111, 156

Firmware

Firmware (MX, TX and IX) This screen is for uploading firmware via the IP network. Manual A Page 113, 158

Firmware File Location
Clicking the browse button brings up the navigation window. This is used to locate the firmware file to upgrade. Clicking the browse button brings up the navigation window. This is a standard windows navigation window. Use it to locate the firmware .nvt file and then select open.

Firmware Installation Status
Bundle uploaded successfully. Fri Aug 12 04:05: File uploaded successfully: nvt_bundle-r3_2.nvt ( bytes) Installing… Please wait After the bundle has been loaded it automatically starts to install the new firmware This screen is for informing the user of the upgrade process. No user input is required.

Firmware Installation Success
The installation completed successfully and a reboot is required. This screen informs the user that the installation completed successfully. It also shows the validation of the file used. File size is checked as is the data size. A Check sum from the End of file and of the raw data is performed. The verification is proved and confirmation that the new firmware has been installed A reboot of the system is required for the firmware to take effect. If the check sums do not match the system will discard the upgrade. You will need to obtain a new copy of the firmware from your Trimble Support personnel. As it maybe corrupted.

Firmware Installation Reboot
After clicking the reboot button this screen appears. A count down is performed. When the counter reaches zero the unit will have rebooted This is a redirection page. It is essentially counting down to the unit is back up. This page requires no user interaction and is provided to keep the user abreast of the upgrades progress.

Firmware Revert Option
Should a user need to revert to a previous version of firmware this can be done by clicking on the Revert and Reboot button. Revert is not available on brand new units. After performing a firmware upgrade the old version of firmware can be easily be recalled by using the Revert and Reboot functionality.

Firmware Revert Confirmation
The warning window is to ensure that Reverts are not performed accidentally. If the user chooses OK the unit will reboot, The previous version of firmware will become active after booting. If the user selects the cancel button the system will not revert the firmware. A revert can be preformed again to bring back the recently loaded firmware. A warning message is displayed to ensure that you do want to revert to the previous firmware. Cancelling will result in the continued use of current firmware version

Utilities

Reboot Me After clicking the reboot button this screen appears. A count down is performed. When the counter reaches zero the unit will have rebooted. The Reboot Me is used for soft reboots. You can make multiple configuration changes by not selecting the reboot option at the time. You can use the Reboot Me option to restart the unit. Manual A Page 115, 160

The user password will take effect upon reboot. The option to reboot the unit is available on this screen. This screen also informs the user that the new password has been saved by the unit. Ensure you have recorded the new password correctly. If you forgotten the new password you will NOT be able to login to the unit. In this case Trimble support personnel must reset the password for you.

Ping Network Host The Ping Network Host allows the user to send icmp packets to another host. This will check on the network between the two units. A ping test is often used to check network connectivity. Packets are sent to another host and the time it takes is reported. If the packets are lost then there are communication problems between those devices. Manual A Page 116, 162

Ping Network Host Results
Below is the information from the ping test The PING test checks if a web host or IP address is reachable across the network by sending multiple ICMP packets and listening for the replies. The PING test measures the time it takes the packets to go from the selected testing monitoring location to the host tested. The test results display the shortest, the average and the maximum round-trip times and packet loss rate between hosts. It also tells how many packets were and were not received.

Network Test This is a an automatic ping net work host test Manual
The Network Test is like an automated Ping Network Host test. You can specify the host for the test, How often you would like to test and how long to wait before declaring a timeout. Manual A Page 117, 163

Network Test confirmation
Confirmation of the parameters set. When a network test is activated you will receive a confirmation of the parameters set.

Network Test – Event Log Output
If no response is received then an event is recorded in the event log. From this extract from the event log we can see the entry for the enabling of the network test as well as the parameters set. Then there is an entry for when the network test starts. There is also a no ping response entry. Finally there is a entry for the disabling of the network test.

NMEA Ping File Manual 602-0266-01-A Page 104, 164
This is function is part of a a future enhancement. Manual A Page 104, 164

USB Dive Utilities

The Install bundle needs to be in the root directory as does the USB script The USB Drive does not need to be empty for the upgrade to function. You can only have one version of firmware in the root folder at one time. Review the release notes for information on enhancements and fixes included in the upgrade Not only for upgrading use, can be used to re-load the firmware.

Plug in the Trimble USB adapter cable ( ) to the cable end labeled USB2. Insert the prepared USB drive to the adapter cable. Turn on the receiver. The following process should be given at least two minutes to complete 0:30-The LED on the USB drive will blink for the first time 0:40-You will hear three beeps to indicate the upgrade process has started 1:40-You will hear the “Shave-and-a-Haircut” sequence indicating programming has completed. Turn off the receiver UNPLUG the USB drive and adapter cable Turn on the receiver. The following process should be allowed at least four minutes to complete 1:15-You will hear one series of fast beeps indicating the atmel device is being programmed. 2:05-You will hear two series of fast beeps indicating the FPGA is being programmed. 3:20-You will hear the “Shave-and-a-Haircut” sequence indicating programming has completed. The unit should be up and operating correctly at this stage. Using the USB firmware will reset the configuration to the factory default. The default IP Address is

The default IP folder need to be in the root folder of the USB drive. The USB Script needs to be in the root folder of the USB drive. The default IP Address is The Default IP Address is You will need to configure your computer to be able to communicate with it.

USB Default IP Process Turn off receiver

Troubleshooting

Autonomous Mode Insufficient Signals Quality Signals
Network communications This does not apply to the IX100G as the Base station will always be in Autonomous mode. Autonomous mode can caused by not having enough signals for a solution The strength of the signals can prevent them from being used The most common cause is the RTK corrections are not being received by the units

Float Mode Insufficient signals Quality of Signals PDOP
Network Communications Float mode can caused by not having enough signals The strength of the signals can prevent them from being used The geometry of the incoming signals will affect the quality of the solution and may result in float mode The network communications can cause prolonged float mode particular before the device had gained the initial fix

Connecting mode Poor communications Not connected to an AX100G
Insufficient signals Rtk stopped Configuration Poor communications are the most common cause for connecting mode, If the Java applet has no data to be updated then it will default to connecting mode. If you are logged on to a unit and watching the signal view page then the unit is switched off, you will see connecting mode in signal view on your browser If there are no signals being received from the antenna the unit will be in connecting mode. If you have to few signals the device may say connecting mode. If the RTK engine has stopped ( Refreshing the home screen should show both CPU Uptime and RTK Uptime increment ) then the device will say connecting mode If the device has the incorrect settings for signal view in the configuration file then the information will not reach your browser

Not Using Terralites The antennas are above or similar height to the Terralites. Quality of signal at Receiver Quality of Signal at XPS Reference Station Radio Communications Numbers of Terralites Geometry The Terralites need be above the devices that use them. If the Terralites are below the units they will not be used. If the Terralite signals received at the unit is weak it will not be used. If the Terralite signals received at the XPS base are weak they cannot be used by any units If the XPS correction is not received the XPS signals cannot be used There needs to be more than 1 Terralite to make a difference If you have two Terralites near each other the signal from one may only be used. This is because as the other Terralite does not add any value to the solution.

Trouble Shooting with Signal View
Signal view can be used to determine if problems are caused by. Insufficient Signals Quality of Signals PDOP Poor communications Signal view can be used to diagnose most issues. The number and quality of signals can be monitored The PDOP value and RTK age are also provided in signals view

Insufficient Signals To few Terralites To few Satellites if not
Using Terralites In order to have a solution we need to meet the signal matrix’s requirements. In the above example if we were to have 3 GPS satellites we would need a minimum of 3 Terralites. The unit will need additional Terralites or Satellites for a solution. There should be 6 Terralites in operation.

Quality of Signals Weak XPS signals Weak and missing L2 Signals
The XPS AG values need to be more than 100 by default, These values are configurable but will only be changed as required by Trimble personnel. The L2 signals on this Terralite are missing or weak. L2 values should e greater than 5 and L1 values need to be greater than 10

PDOP High PDOP values Will result in a low precision solution.
The PDOP defines the quality of the solution based on geometric considerations. To lower you PDOP values you can implement or arrange your Terralites around the device. Numerous and well spaced Terralites will improve your Geometry and provide you with a High Precision location.

Network Communications
In each of the above situations the network is causing issues. In the first image we can see that the unit is in autonomous. Remember that this is most often caused by network communications. Under RTK Age we can see that there are no communications. The second image is of a Split base system. We can see that there are fewer satellite signals on the base station than there are on the receiver. The reason for this is that the GNSS base corrections are not being received and the XPS base stations corrections are being used instead. The XPS base is going to be lower in the pit and will see less signals than GNNS base. The GNSS base will be in open view of the sky and will see more signals than a receiver in the pit. The third image shows the XPS portion of signals view. In this case we are not seeing the XPS reference stations signals. The reason for this is that the unit is not receiving its XPS correction. Only the XPS base can provide XPS corrections. Without the XPS corrections the Terralites cannot be used.

Communication Checks In the Diagnostics menu there is a link to RTK Packet stats. This page can provide you with additional information about the networks performance. We can see here that no correction from either base has been received in the past minute. The network throughput is also very poor. We would expect the throughput to be in the high 99% range.

Configuration Signal View setting in the configuration file determines how signal view is viewed. An incorrect setting will result in Connecting mode. The values shown are the default values. MX100G TX100 IX100G IP Address Differential Correction Position Output Slot Number Reference Position XPS Network XPS Network – XPS Base only The signal View setting can cause connecting mode if incorrectly set. There are no user interfaces to change it so it is unlikely to change. However some sites may need to have this value changed and thus the default values would not work. The configurable items that you need to change for a standard system are outlined above. All devices need an IP address and differential correction configured. The MX will need the position output configured for the machine control system. As well as an XPS network ID. The TX will need the unique slot number enabled and the XPS network ID. The base stations will need there position entered and the XPS base will need the XPS network ID entered.

Loss of XPS or GPS Signals

Cable Swap Test R2 R1 Do the cable swap from R1 to R2 and R2 to R1
Turn off both units and swap ALL of the cables from each unit to the other. Note the problem here is with R1 and R2 is OK. R2 Do the cable swap from R1 to R2 and R2 to R1 Feild Service Training

Cable Swap Results 1 R1 R2 After the swap the problem moves to R2
Now note that the problem (not tracking Terralite Transmitters) is on R2. Remember it was on R1. This tells us that the receiver is ok and that the problem lies with either the cables (Red) or the antenna. After the swap the problem moves to R2 Feild Service Training

Cable Swap Results 2 R1 R2 The problem stays with R1 and R2 is OK.
Since the problem did not ‘move’ from R1 to R2 the issue is the receiver. Power off both units Replace receiver 1 (configured) and Reconnect the cables to their correct receivers. Turn the system on and wait for it to boot. Verify proper operation of both receivers. Check with machine operator for correct operation with the machine application. The problem stays with R1 and R2 is OK. Feild Service Training

Antenna check Yes No Antenna working Repair / replace Replace antenna
Cables No Connect the antenna to a known working receiver with good cables. If the antenna functions correctly, repair or replace the faulty antenna cables. Remember it may only be one cable that is causing the problems. If the antenna is still displaying faulty operation replace the antenna. Feild Service Training

The possible problems are: Receiver Ethernet port Trimble Ethernet cable The port on the Site Ethernet Switch or Hub (move to known port to check) Follow the following flow chart for troubleshooting. R1 R2 Here R1 is in Autonomous Mode while R2 is in Hybrid Fine Feild Service Training

No RTK messages and Network connectivity 1
Disconnect Ethernet cable from The switch and connect to laptop Able to connect to receiver No Yes Contact IS department to check switch and/or radio Able to Connect Replace Ethernet cable Proceed to next page Connect known working Ethernet cable to receiver and laptop As standard practice reboot receiver and test prior to performing the tests. Prior to connecting laptop to the receiver insure the laptop is configured on the same subnet as the receiver. If you are able to connect directly to the receiver from the laptop. The problem is beyond the Trimble equipment. If the Ethernet cable is found faulty, completely remove the old cable prior to installing the new one. Feild Service Training

No RTK messages and Network connectivity 2
Unable to communicate with direct connect Reset the receiver IP with the USB utility Communication restored Yes No After performing the IP reset, insure that you reconfigure the laptop to the default IP subnet. ( / No gateway), This setting will allow you to communicate with the receivers reset IP address of If communication is restored after the reset, verify the correct IP settings for the receiver are used. Reconfigure network settings and reconnect the Ethernet cable to the receiver and the switch. Then check communications over the wireless network. Replace MX-100 receiver Reconfigure receivers Network settings Feild Service Training