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CARDIAC EMERGENCIES. Anatomy of the Heart Muscular organ (fist size) Muscular organ (fist size) Functions like a pump Functions like a pump Protected.

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Presentation on theme: "CARDIAC EMERGENCIES. Anatomy of the Heart Muscular organ (fist size) Muscular organ (fist size) Functions like a pump Functions like a pump Protected."— Presentation transcript:

1 CARDIAC EMERGENCIES

2 Anatomy of the Heart Muscular organ (fist size) Muscular organ (fist size) Functions like a pump Functions like a pump Protected by the ribs, sternum, and spine Protected by the ribs, sternum, and spine 4 chambers, right and left halves 4 chambers, right and left halves Supplied with blood by the coronary arteries Supplied with blood by the coronary arteries

3 Functions of the Heart Right atrium (receives O 2 poor blood from veins) Right atrium (receives O 2 poor blood from veins) Right ventricle (pumps O 2 poor blood to the lungs) Right ventricle (pumps O 2 poor blood to the lungs) Left atrium (receives O 2 rich blood) Left atrium (receives O 2 rich blood) Left ventricle (pumps O 2 rich blood to the body) Left ventricle (pumps O 2 rich blood to the body)

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5 HEART ATTACK Coronary arteries fail to supply the heart muscle with O 2 rich blood Coronary arteries fail to supply the heart muscle with O 2 rich blood Muscle tissue starts to die (too much = heart stops pumping blood) Muscle tissue starts to die (too much = heart stops pumping blood) Interrupts heart’s electrical system, causes irregular heartbeat Interrupts heart’s electrical system, causes irregular heartbeat

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7 Causes of Heart Attack Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular Disease (heart and blood vessels) 70 million Americans have it 1 million deaths Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Artery Disease

8 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Early tendencies….junk food and smoking Early tendencies….junk food and smoking Risk Factors Risk Factors Gender….males higher Gender….males higher Family history of heart disease Family history of heart disease Smoking* Smoking* Diets high in saturated fats* Diets high in saturated fats* Obesity* Obesity* High blood pressure* High blood pressure* Lack of exercise* Lack of exercise*

9 Cardiovascular Disease Cholesterol causes atherosclerosis Cholesterol causes atherosclerosis

10 S/S of Heart Attack Persistent chest pain or discomfort Persistent chest pain or discomfort Difficulty breathing Difficulty breathing Changes in pulse rate Changes in pulse rate Skin appearance Skin appearance

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12 Care for Heart Attack Summon EMS Summon EMS Convince victim to stop activity and rest Convince victim to stop activity and rest Help victim rest comfortably Help victim rest comfortably SAMPLE History SAMPLE History Comfort the victim Comfort the victim Monitor Vitals Monitor Vitals Be prepared for CPR Be prepared for CPR

13 CARDIAC ARREST Heart stops beating or beats too weakly to circulate blood Heart stops beating or beats too weakly to circulate blood Breathing stops—clinical death Breathing stops—clinical death Organs no longer receiving O 2 rich blood Organs no longer receiving O 2 rich blood 300,000 deaths prior to reaching hospital 300,000 deaths prior to reaching hospital

14 Causes of Cardiac Arrest *Cardiovascular disease* *Cardiovascular disease* Drowning Drowning Suffocation Suffocation Certain drugs Certain drugs Severe injuries to the chest Severe injuries to the chest Severe blood loss Severe blood loss Electrocution Electrocution Stroke Stroke

15 Stroke

16 STROKE A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to any part of the brain. A stroke is sometimes called a "brain attack." A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to any part of the brain. A stroke is sometimes called a "brain attack."stroke Alternative Names Alternative Names Cerebrovascular disease; CVA; Cerebral infarction; Cerebral hemorrhage Cerebrovascular disease; CVA; Cerebral infarction; Cerebral hemorrhage

17 Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy HCM is the leading cause of sudden death in young people HCM is the leading cause of sudden death in young people (1 in 500 people) (1 in 500 people) Excessive thickening of heart muscle Excessive thickening of heart muscle Anthony Bates Foundation Anthony Bates Foundation Anthony Bates Foundation Anthony Bates Foundation

18 Signs of Cardiac Arrest NO PULSE NO PULSE NO BREATHING NO BREATHING

19 Care for Cardiac Arrest Call 911 Call 911 CPR and AED until ACLS equipment arrives CPR and AED until ACLS equipment arrives

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21 Using an AED 1. Confirm cardiac arrest (ABC’s) 2. Do CPR until AED is ready 3. Open the lid of the AED 4. Attach the electrode pads to the chest 1. Dry and shave chest if necessary 5. Let the AED analyze the rhythm 6. Deliver a shock, if indicated

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23 Precautions….DO NOT: use alcohol pads to clean the chest use alcohol pads to clean the chest touch victim while analyzing and defibrillating touch victim while analyzing and defibrillating use in a moving vehicle, water, or on sheet metal use in a moving vehicle, water, or on sheet metal use within 10 feet of cell phones use within 10 feet of cell phones use on children under the age of 8 use on children under the age of 8 use on someone wearing a nitroglycerine patch use on someone wearing a nitroglycerine patch use near flammable materials use near flammable materials

24 Adult CPR Hand position Hand position Body position Body position Compression depth… inches Compression depth… inches Compression rate….30 compressions in 20 seconds Compression rate….30 compressions in 20 seconds Cycle…30 compressions: 2 breaths Cycle…30 compressions: 2 breaths

25 ADULT CPR 1. Check LOC 2. Call Open airway, check for breathing 4. Give 2 slow breaths 5. Check for circulation and severe bleeding 6. Begin CPR by giving 30 compressions 7. Then give 2 slow breaths 8. Repeat cycles of 30 compressions and 2 breaths 9. After 1 minute, re-check the pulse for 5 seconds

26 Child CPR Hand position-1 hand Hand position-1 hand Body position Body position Compression depth…1-1.5 inches Compression depth…1-1.5 inches Compression rate…5 compressions in 3 seconds Compression rate…5 compressions in 3 seconds Cycle…30 compressions: 2 breath Cycle…30 compressions: 2 breath

27 CHILD CPR 1. Check LOC 2. Call Open airway and check for breathing 4. Give 2 slow breaths 5. Check for circulation and severe bleeding 6. Begin CPR by giving 30 compressions 7. Then give 2 breaths 8. Repeat cycles of 30 compressions and 2 breaths 9. After 1 minute, recheck pulse for 5 seconds

28 INFANT CPR Hand position-nipple line, 2 fingers Hand position-nipple line, 2 fingers Body position Body position Compression depth…1/2 to 1 inch Compression depth…1/2 to 1 inch Compression rate…5 compressions in about 3 seconds Compression rate…5 compressions in about 3 seconds Cycle…5 compressions: 1 breath Cycle…5 compressions: 1 breath

29 INFANT CPR 1. Check LOC 2. Call Open airway and check for breathing 4. Give 2 slow breaths 5. Check for circulation and severe bleeding 6. Begin CPR by giving 5 compressions 7. Then give 1 breath 8. Repeat cycles of 5 compressions and 1 breath 9. After 1 minute, recheck pulse for 5 seconds

30 When to stop CPR A person with higher training takes over A person with higher training takes over EMS takes over EMS takes over Person’s heart starts beating Person’s heart starts beating The scene becomes unsafe The scene becomes unsafe An AED is being used An AED is being used If you are presented with a DNR order If you are presented with a DNR order If you are too exhausted to continue If you are too exhausted to continue


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