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BREATHING EMERGENCIES. ABCD’s AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION DEFIBRILLATION SEVERE BLEEDING.

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Presentation on theme: "BREATHING EMERGENCIES. ABCD’s AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION DEFIBRILLATION SEVERE BLEEDING."— Presentation transcript:

1 BREATHING EMERGENCIES

2 ABCD’s AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION DEFIBRILLATION SEVERE BLEEDING

3 The Breathing Process Air (oxygen) into nose and mouth---passes through pharynx----travels through the trachea--- lungs---blood--- delivered to brain, organs, muscles (provides energy)

4 BRAIN and OXYGEN Brain is very sensitive to oxygen starvation Brain cells start to die in 4- 6 minutes without oxygen

5 TIME FRAME 0 minutes: breathing stops, heart will soon stop beating 4-6 minutes: brain damage possible 6-10 minutes: brain damage likely Over 10 minutes: irreversible brain damage certain

6 BREATHING Brain controls breathing Adjusts rate and depth of breaths based on O 2 and CO 2 levels Requires respiratory, circulatory, nervous, and musculoskeletal systems to work together

7 BREATHING EMERGENCIES An obstructed airway (choking) Illness, such as pneumonia Respiratory conditions (asthma, emphysema) Electrocution Shock Drowning Heart attack or heart disease Chest or lung injury Allergic reactions (food, insects) Drugs Poisoning Hyperventilation

8 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS Most common type of breathing emergency Injury Illness Excitement Anxiety

9 SIGNS and SYMPTOMS-- RD Obvious Cannot catch their breath or gasp for air Grunting, wheezing, gurgling, shrill sounds Breaths unusually fast, slow, deep, or shallow (slow= less than 8 breaths per minute)

10 S/S Respiratory Distress Skin Unusually moist and flushed Pale, ashen, or bluish (cyanosis) Symptoms –Dizzy, lightheaded, painful, tingling in lips, hands, or feet

11 Specific Types of RD Asthma Emphysema Hyperventilation Anaphylaxis

12 Care for RD Initial assessment Summon EMS Help the victim rest comfortably Physical exam SAMPLE history Reassure the victim Assist with medication Monitor vital signs

13 RESPIRATORY ARREST Breathing stops –Illness –Injury –Obstructed airway *heart will stop beating, organs will begin to fail

14 RESCUE BREATHING Breathing air into a person to supply him or her with the O 2 needed to survive

15 STEPS Determine LOC—unresponsive Open airway and look, listen, feel for breathing No breathing –Give 2 slow breaths –Check for pulse –Look for severe bleeding

16 RESCUE BREATHING Keep airway open 1 breath every 5 seconds Every minute re-check pulse

17 When to stop rescue breathing: Victim breathes on own Victim has no pulse—CPR Someone with more training than you arrives You are too exhausted to continue The scene becomes unsafe

18 Special considerations: Air in stomach Vomiting Mouth-to-nose breathing Mouth-to-stoma breathing Victims with dentures Suspected spine injury

19 Infants and Children Faster breath rate and pulse rate than adults Rescue breaths are faster Less air in each breath Head-tilt is less Cover mouth and nose Infants: 1 breath every 3 seconds Children: 1 breath every 5 seconds

20 AIRWAY OBSTRUCTIONS Most common cause of respiratory emergency TWO causes: anatomical or mechanical Partial or Complete

21 PARTIAL AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION Can still move some air in and out of the lungs Person can still cough and/or speak Person may clutch throat (universal sign) Encourage them to keep coughing and summon EMS if it continues

22 COMPLETE AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION Unable to speak, cough, cry, or breathe CALL 911 Heimlich Maneuver/ Abdominal thrusts until the obstruction is clear (or they become unconscious)

23 Unconscious Choking Adult/Child Lay the person down 1.Open the airway by lifting the jaw up 2.Finger sweep 3.Open the airway—head-tilt/chin-lift 4.Give 2 slow breaths If air does not go in: 5.Reposition (retilt) the head 6.Give 2 slow breaths

24 If air still does not go in: 7.Give up to 5 abdominal thrusts or chest thrusts** 8.Do a finger sweep 9.Give 2 slow breaths (reposition if necessary) Repeat until object is expelled

25 Chest Thrusts Middle of the sternum Person is too large or they are pregnant Compress 1 ½ to 2 inches 5 quick thrusts

26 Conscious Choking Infant Call 911 Alternate 5 back blows and 5 chest thrusts until the object comes out

27 Unconscious Choking Infant 1. 2 slow breaths (they don’t go in) 2. Reposition head 3. 2 more slow breaths (if they don’t go in, assume airway is obstructed) 4. Give 5 back blows 5. Give 5 chest thrusts 6. Do a foreign body check 7. Open the airway 8. Give 2 slow breaths (if they don’t go in, repeat steps)


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