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Synthesis essay Objective: Construct essay that develops claim, using variety of sources to prove claim.

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Presentation on theme: "Synthesis essay Objective: Construct essay that develops claim, using variety of sources to prove claim."— Presentation transcript:

1 Synthesis essay Objective: Construct essay that develops claim, using variety of sources to prove claim

2 What is the synthesis essay? Students are given intro and description of a topic that has different perspectives Selection of sources that address the topic --nonfiction --non-textuals Fiction Poetry drama

3 How do I answer the synthesis essay? Investigate a variety of sources, both print and visual Choose which of the sources to include in your presentation Respond to these sources and discuss how they relate to your thesis (claim)

4 You must Relate it to the thesis/claim Use specific examples (personal and otherwise) Use selected sources (3) to support the major point Cite the sources (Exhibit A). (Exhibit B). Etc.

5 You must not Use only your opinion Merely summarize the articles Example: Thoreau speaks about the need for government to be limited. He tells the reader that they are the ones who shoulder the work. Merely analyze the non textual Example: in this cartoon, the artist shows two large bags of money which symbolize the government. Begin writing during the 15 min reading period.

6 Textuals Essays Articles Fiction Drama Poetry Non-textuals Photos Charts Graphs Art Editorial cartoons Newspaper pages

7 Purpose of the synthesis essay To determine ability to Read critically Understand and analyze texts Develop & support a position on a given topic Support a position with evidence from outside sources Incorporate outside sources into texts of essay Cite sources used in the essay

8 types of synthesis essays Expository essay where you develop thesis and support with specific examples form sources Compare and contrast Cause and effect Analysis—the benefits of a claim; what a group must consider; most important factors that should be considered

9 Second kind of synthesis prompt Must present an argument Must take a position on a given topic Must support position with outside sources Must indicate the weaknesses of the other arguments

10 How to tackle the synthesis essay Break down the synthesis prompt 1.Read any introductory material 2.Look for key words, phrases, other information to make your job clearer 3.Highlight important terms and elements of the prompt

11 Intro example Invasive species are non native plants and animals that thrive outside of their natural range and may harm or endanger native plants and animals. As producers and consumers in our global society, we affect and are affected by species introduced accidentally or intentionally to a region. Currently some people argue for stricter regulations of imported species to avoid the possibility of unintended negative consequences. Others, however, claim that the economies and basic resources of poorer nations could be improved by selective importation of nonnative species.

12 Assignment Read the following sources (including any introductory information) carefully. Then write an essay in which you evaluate what a business or government agency would need to consider before transferring a hardy but non-indigenous species to another country. Synthesize at least three of the sources for support. Refer to the sources by their titles (source A, Source B etc.) or by the descriptions in the parentheses.

13 Time factor Suggested reading time 15 minutes Suggested writing time 40 minutes

14 Strategies—Critically read the textuals ANALYZE FOR Purpose/thesis Intended audience (Of the original article) Type of source (primary, secondary) Main points Historical context Authority of the author How material is presented Type of evidence presented/source of evidence Any bias or agenda How text relates to topic Support or opposition toward the thesis

15 How to analyze non- textuals Identify subject of the visual Identify major components: characters, visual details, symbols Identify verbal clues—tag lines, date, author, dialogue Does visual take a positive or negative position toward the issue? Identify primary purpose of the visual. Determine how each detail illustrates and /or supports the primary purpose

16 Practice Look at Source A and analyze. Subject—balsam fir trees destroyed by species

17 Determine your position After reading the prompt construct a preliminary position sentence/controlling focus Ex: Government and businesses alike must consider __________ __________ ________ before permitting importing a non-indigenous plant or animal to a new region. Although importing a non-indigenous plant or animal to a new region may be an easy fix,

18 Selecting sources What is your purpose? Is the source background info or pertinent info? Determines where information will go? Does the source give new info or info that other sources cover? Does this source reflect viewpts of any other texts? Will this info add depth to your essay?

19 Selecting sources (cont.) Does this source contradict the viewpts of other sources? Does the source support your position? Use for developing paragraphs Does the source contradict your position? Use for anticipated objection.

20 Summary of source Read closely and locate key words that enable you to reduce the piece to its essential points Write this summary on the bottom of the source. If non-textual, write the significance of the source.

21 Summary Read article Underline key words Base summary on key words underlined

22 Choosing which parts of the selected texts to use Review the notes/highlights on your chosen passages Ignore items you have not annotated Determine if each excerpt contributes to the development of your thesis

23 How to incorporate--body If you have not annotated the piece, ignore it Determine how each source develops, supports your thesis 1. identify the major point each will support 2. analyze if the source/piece will strengthen your point and not just refer to it. 3. determine how much you will use 4. Determine what comments you can make about the point (analyze) 5. determine anticipated objection to the point

24 SourcePoint supportedQuote/non-textual aspect/ summary /paraphrase CUse of television coverage of presidential elections has negatively influenced these elections through its emphasis on image, its “An effective President must be every year more concerned with projecting images of himself.” Thesis: Use of television coverage of presidential elections has negatively influenced these elections, through its emphasis on image, ___________

25 Paraphrase Transpose the original material into your own words

26 Inference Draw a conclusion based on the important information provided What do you get out of the material/source?

27 Purpose of intro Catch reader’s interest Give background information necessary for reader to understand point of the essay Introduce thesis that indicates purpose of essay and order of points to be raised in support of thesis.

28 Writing intros Find a startling statistic that illustrates the seriousness of the problem you will address. Quote an expert (but be sure to introduce him or her first). Mention common misperception that your thesis will argue against. (Many Americans believe...) Give some background information necessary for understanding the essay. Use an anecdote that exemplifies reason for choosing the topic. In an assignment that encourages personal reflection, you may draw on your own experiences; In research essay, the narrative may illustrate a common real-world scenario. (Freedman and Blotnik)

29 Writing the conclusion Can include information from sources that you did not use 1.Topic sentence –presents your position 2.Refer to source that makes a strong statement in support of your position but did not give adequate support to include in body 3.Design clincher to be more than just a tag on.

30 Purpose of Conclusion place the essay in a larger context serve as a call for action set forth a warning or hypothesis intentionally complicate the issues you have already introduced (Allyn and Bacon) Restate thesis in simplistic manner Clincher—refer back to attention getter (tell the ending of the anecdote, put the statement, statistic in context)

31 How do I conclude? Return to an anecdote, example, or quotation that you introduced in your introduction, but add further insight that derives from the body of your essay. Give a startling statistic, fact, or visual image to drive home the ultimate point of your paper In a science or social science paper, mention worthwhile avenues for future research on your topic.

32 Conclusion:: If essay deals with contemporary problem warn of consequences of not attending to the problem Recommend a specific course of action. Use quotation or expert opinion to lend authority to the conclusion you have reached

33 Conclusion:: If your essay encourages personal reflection Illustrate your concluding point with a relevant narrative drawn from your own life experiences.

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