What’s Your Discipline? Careful with those Deadlines! Consider Smaller, Grad- specific Conferences When in Doubt, Ask Your Advisor! Funding? CHOOSING A CONFERENCE
What to do: Read instructions carefully Have a reasonably complete project Have a good outline Introduction, objectives Methods Results Conclusion/implications Catchy title Tell a story, be specific What not to do: Go over word count Propose something you haven’t done yet Write in generalities SUBMITTING A GOOD ABSTRACT
Know Your Audience! To Script or Not to Script… Follow the Formula Data and Findings Matter, not Lit Review Practice! One Sure Way to Annoy Your Chair? PREPARING THE ORAL PRESENTATION
What? A detailed abstract An opportunity to discuss your work in detail An outline for a manuscript Why? Sometimes you don’t have a choice Can engage people in conversations Help generates other ideas Main message quickly and widely Average time at a poster is 90 seconds! WHAT IS A POSTER AND WHY DO IT?
What makes a good poster? Focused Graphic Ordered Readable Make sure you Read instructions (particularly size) Know your main message Think about your oral presentation Use an appropriate template Avoid too much text http://www.ohio.edu/mediapro duction/templates/ http://www.ohio.edu/mediapro duction/templates/ WHAT MAKES A GOOD POSTER?
“Kenyan Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Perspectives of Discipline and Misbehavior” Gillian H. Ice, Ph.D. 1 ; Sharon V. King, Ph.D. 2 ; Eunice Owino 3 ; Sister Paul Anastasia 3 1Department of Social Medicine, Ohio University, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Athens, OH; 2 Georgia State University Gerontology Institute, Atlanta, GA; 3 St. Elizabeth Joot Social Services, Ahero Help the Aged, Ahero, Kenya ABSTRACT In Kenya, AIDS has orphaned approximately two million children—many now in the care of family elders. Intergenerational relation- ships—specifically child misbehavior and discipline—is one under-researched topic among this growing population of older African caregivers. This pilot study applies a phenomenological perspective to describe the meanings of misbehavior and discipline strategies among a sample of 46 Kenyan grandparents raising grandchildren in the rural western province of Nyanza, Kenya. The grandparents reported misbehavior in three categories: breach of domestic norms [disobedience, use of vulgar language, refusal to ask permission, ignoring domestic responsibilities]; breach of social norms [substance abuse, theft, prostitution, destruction of property], and attitudinal inappropriateness [rudeness, selfishness, quarrelsomeness, disrespect for elders]. Misbehavior was attributed to peer influence, frustration about unemployment and impoverished conditions, negative parental role models, hunger, mental disability, and feelings of being unloved. Grandparents varied in their strategies to discipline their grandchildren. Some believed they were too old and physically weak to discipline and ignored misbehavior, sought God’s intervention to manage children, or turned grandchildren over to law enforcement authorities. Others believed “caning” or other forms of corporal punishment was the most effective strategy, but some preferred to employ education and verbal discipline. Prevailing themes were the need for community support and government intervention to help grandparents manage misbehaving grandchildren. This theme reflects the grandparents’ combined traditional and contemporary perspectives of their unanticipated parenting role. The findings imply that service interventions for these families should include parenting support, community education, and advocacy for national caregiving policies. METHODS Data were collected from a subset of the Kenyan Grandparents Study (KGS). KGS is a longitudinal study designed to examine the impact of HIV/AIDS on the health and wellbeing of grandparents caring for orphaned children. The overall sample included 292 grandparents. Half were caregivers of orphans, half were non caregivers (see map). The sample characteristics of caregivers included in this project are presented in Table 1. Caregiving status was defined as having at least one child under or equal to the age of 18 who had lost at least one parent. Qualitative data were collected by interview in Dholuo by native speakers and then translated into English. Participants were asked a series of questions about the misbehavior of their grandchildren and strategies for dealing with the misbehavior. Content analysis was conducted to identify emergent themes. CONCLUSIONS Prevailing themes were the need for community support and government intervention to help grandparents manage misbehaving grandchildren. This theme reflects the grandparents’ combined traditional and contemporary perspectives of their unanticipated parenting role. Orphans face many psychosocial problems and stressors that may lead to inappropriate behavior, yet grandparents lack the tools for meeting the emotional needs of orphans. Because corporal punishment is common in Kenya, grandparents may feel that they are too old or weak to effectively discipline their grandchildren. Other research from KGS indicates that inappropriate behavior of grandchildren is a considerable source of stress for grandparents. RECOMMENDATIONS These findings imply that service interventions for these families should include parenting support, community education, and advocacy for national caregiving policies. Alternative approaches to disciplining children can be taught to grandparents using local women’s and men’s groups as venues. These group members can then train others in discipline techniques. Strategies to meet the psychosocial and mental health needs of orphans may act to reduce discipline problems and therefore reduce the burden on grandparents. Orphaned children living outside the extended family are at a greater risk for an HIV infection and are more vulnerable to social, economic, and psychological effects. This demonstrates the importance of helping grandparents to continue their role of caregiving. THREE CATEGORIES OF MISBEHAVIOR: BREACH OF SOCIAL NORMS Misbehavior that represented a breach of social norms included: Substance abuse Theft Prostitution Destruction of property “They steal, especially chickens from near-by farms.” Grandmother, Age 63 “They steal, drink alcohol, and smoke bhang (hemp).” Grandmother, Age 65 “They loiter, are violent, and engage in prostitution.” Grandmother, Age 60 GRANDPARENTS ATTRIBUTED MISBEHAVIOR TO: Peer influence Frustration about unemployment, lack of schooling, and impoverished conditions Negative parental role models Hunger, mental disability Feelings of being unloved Absence of parents “They [go to] discos and cinemas with others where they learn bad behavior.” Grandfather, Age 66 “They [their parents] disciplined them but not much. It is... the way they are raised.” Grandfather, Age 68 “They have, a foolish thought that they are not loved.” Grandmother, Age 73 “They misbehave because they are parentless and lack contact with parents” Grandfather, Age 59 “They need education and parental love since they are orphans. They require basic needs—food, shelter, and clothes.” Grandfather, Age 66 THREE CATEGORIES OF MISBEHAVIOR: ATTITUDINAL INAPPROPRIATENESS Grandparents reported behavior which exhibited attitudinal inappropriateness such as: Rudeness Selfishness Quarrelsomeness Disrespect for elders “They eat everything and do not consider the other children who are upset about it.” Grandmother, Age 66 “They do not respect older people... and beat grandparents.” Grandfather, Age 76 “He does not listen to my advice, fulfill his assignments, or respect his elders.” Grandmother, Age 73 “They are rude, undisciplined, and always quarrel with each other.” Grandmother, Age 60 STRATEGIES TO MANAGE MISBEHAVIOR Grandparents varied in their strategies to discipline their grandchildren. Ignore misbehavior Use verbal discipline Use corporal punishment Withhold food Seek help from relatives Seek help from community leaders Seek spiritual intervention Contact law enforcement authorities Insist that the government intervene “The local chief, uncles, and cousins help me discipline them.” Grandmother, Age 66 “I try to talk to them politely, teaching them on what to do and not to do.” Grandfather, Age 71 “I am old now, and I cannot counsel them properly. I am doing little to support them due to my age” Grandmother, Age 63 “I pray or let the authorities arrest the child.” Grandmother, Age 66 “I insist on discipline, deny them food, and give a thorough caning.” Grandfather, Age 60 “The government needs to discipline them or put them in institutions.” Grandmother, Age 76 THREE CATEGORIES OF MISBEHAVIOR: BREACH OF DOMESTIC NORMS Grandparents reported some misbehavior as a breach of domestic norms: Disobedience Use of vulgar language Refusal to ask permission Ignoring domestic responsibilities “They take things without my permission.” Grandmother, Age 63 “They do not graze the cattle well and leave them to destroy other people’s crops.” Grandmother, Age 73 Table 1: Select Sample Characteristics VariableCaregi ver N=36 Non- Caregi ver N=10 Total N=46 Age69.9 (8.3) 67.6 (6.1) 69.4 (7.9) Female (%)41.760.045.7 Married (%)63.930.056.5 Widowed (%)36.170.043.5 Polygynous19.40.030.7 # Children in homestead 1.8 (1.4) 0.9 (1.0) 1.6 (1.3) # Orphans1.9 (1.1) Acknowledgements: This project was funded by the OU Baker Fund, OU-COM Research Award and the National Science Foundation under Grant No.0515890. Thanks to our Kenyan Field Team. A special thanks to the communities in Nyando & Kisumu Districts for their hospitality and participation in this research. Contact: Gillian H. Ice, Ph.D., M.P.H. firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com MAP OF KENYA Nyanza Province in Red
Write an outline. Keep it short. Use short-bulleted statements—not paragraphs. Break up text with graphics. Do not get too fancy ENGAGING POWERPOINT
Consider Using the Appear animation ENGAGING POWERPOINT
Do not read the slides. Proof read your slides Show enthusiasm Practice. ENGAGING POWERPOINT
In general, it’s best to answer the question that is actually asked. Ask for clarification if necessary. If you have understood the question, and really don’t know the answer, don’t try to bluff it. Say that you don’t know. Attempts to bluff will be obvious to at least some, and perhaps all, of the audience. It is fine to say something like, “That’s a good question. I’ll need to give it some more thought afterwards. Let’s talk later.” And move on to the next questioner. It is fine to take a little while to think about a question before answering. Say something like, “let me think about that for a moment”, and give yourself 5-10 seconds. QUESTION AND ANSWER
Unless the questioner is dragging things on and wasting time, don’t start answering the question until they finish asking it. This gives you a bit of extra time to think, and makes sure you hear the actual question. If you don’t understand the question (e.g. due to a strong accent, poor audio conditions, or poor wording of the question), ask the questioner to repeat it or to express it differently. Co-authors should not offer criticisms of the work or the talk during question time. A co-author who does respond to a question should make it clear to the audience that he or she is a co-author. QUESTION AND ANSWER
Sometimes audience members make a statement, rather than asking a question. You can respond to or expand on the statement if you want to. If a questioner is hogging the floor, the chair of the session should cut them off, but failing that, you can do so if you wish. How long should your answer be? Not too long, not too short, just right. Thirty seconds to a minute is about the right length of answer for many questions. QUESTION AND ANSWER
It may be possible to anticipate the questions you will be asked. If so, be prepared. What if you find yourself in exactly the situation you’ve been dreading, and a questioner finds a serious error in your analysis? Definitely don’t bluff. The audience tends to accept that mistakes happen. They are likely to keep asking further questions, despite the error. Self-deprecating humor can be effective in this situation, if you can manage it. QUESTION AND ANSWER
What if someone claims to find an important error in the middle of your talk? If they are right, it may be that the rest of your results are wrong. If you are sure that you can deal with the issue convincingly without taking up much time, do so. Thank them for their advice, and suggest that you re-visit the issue during question time. Usually, seminars and conference presentations are on a tight time schedule, and you don’t want to lose half your time in an argument. Even if they are right, it is probably best not to just abandon your prepared talk (except in extreme cases). Rather, have a discussion in question time about the implications of their point. QUESTION AND ANSWER
Don’t be defensive about your work when you should actually concede a weakness that someone has pointed out. (A hard thing to do!) By all means point out any mitigating circumstances or rationalizations for you having adopted an approach with a weakness, but don’t deny that it is a weakness. Every study has weaknesses and limitations of one sort or another, and its just good scientific practice to acknowledge yours. Finally, a risk to guard against is that you might relax at the end of your main presentation, and give a flippant answer to a question, such that you open up a can of worms. Remember that the presentation doesn’t end until the questions are over. Borrowed from David Pannell, The University of Western Australia QUESTION AND ANSWER
Start networking before you even get to the conference. Email presenters to let them know that you look forward to hearing their talks. Introduce yourself at the events. Be ready to get to the point quickly. Listen. NETWORKING