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Marie L. Radford, PhD, Rutgers University & Lynn Silipigni Connaway, PhD, OCLC Presented at the Fifth Annual iConference University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

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Presentation on theme: "Marie L. Radford, PhD, Rutgers University & Lynn Silipigni Connaway, PhD, OCLC Presented at the Fifth Annual iConference University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marie L. Radford, PhD, Rutgers University & Lynn Silipigni Connaway, PhD, OCLC Presented at the Fifth Annual iConference University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign February 3-6, 2010 “I stay away from the unknown, I guess, ” Measuring Impact and Understanding Critical Factors for Millennial Generation and Adult Non- users of Virtual Reference Services

2 Phases Focus Group Interviews Online surveys Telephone Interviews Analysis of 850 QuestionPoint live chat transcripts Comparison Millennials v. older adults “Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User, & Librarian Perspectives”

3 Millennial Demographics: Gender & Age (N=195)

4 Millennial Demographics: Ethnicity & Types of Library (N=195)

5 Millennial Demographics: Location (N=195)

6 Older Adult Demographics: Gender & Age (N=95)

7 Older Adult Demographics: Ethnicity & Types of Library (N=95)

8 Older Adult Demographics: Location (N=95)

9 Online Survey (N=184) Quantitative Results

10 Experience with Reference Modes Online Survey (N=184)

11 Phone Reference Use Online Survey (N=184)

12 Face-to-Face Preference (FtF) Online Survey (N=184)

13 FtF Preference: Adults & Millennials Online Survey

14 FtF vs. Other Formats: Millennials (N=122) Online Survey

15 Least Intimidating: Millennials (N=122) Online Survey

16 “The Library is convenient” Online Survey (N=184)

17 “Remote access is important” Online Survey (N=184)

18 Convenience: Millennials Online Survey

19 Personal Relationships Important Value Interactions with Specific Librarians Online Survey (N=184)

20 Personal Relationships with Librarians Online Survey By Flickr ® user Wanderingone

21 Librarian Friendliness & Politeness Valued Online Survey (N=184)

22 Librarian Friendliness & Politeness: Millennials Online Survey

23 Reasons for Not Choosing VRS Online Survey (N=184)

24 “Chat reference might be too complicated.” Adults Online Survey By Flickr® user markuz

25 Reasons for Not Choosing VRS Online Survey Questions might annoy librarian Don’t believe librarian can help Didn’t know VRS existed Satisfied with other sources By Flickr ® user RodBegbie

26 Reasons to Use VRS Online Survey Non-users might try VRS If they could receive information quickly 24/7/365 By Flickr ® user mag3737

27 Demographics Phone Interviews (N=107)

28 FtF Preferred (N=107) Phone Interviews

29 FtF Preferred Phone Interviews By Flickr® user acpl

30 Reasons for Not Choosing VRS Phone Interviews 82% (24) were unaware it existed

31 Reasons for Not Choosing VRS Phone Interviews 43%(45) used the Web 12%(13) Mentioned Google

32 Reasons for Not Choosing VRS Phone Interviews By Flickr ® user Rainer Ebert /

33 Reasons to Use VRS Phone Interviews

34 Reasons to Use VRS - Convenience Phone Interviews

35 Qualitative Data Analysis Critical Incidents (CIs) Data analyzed using Flanagan’s CIT (1954) Online surveys/phone interviews had 2 questions CIs sorted into themes via constant comparative method Themes expanded & merged into the CI Coding Scheme FtF encounters VR encounters

36 Qualitative Results – Positive CIs Online Survey (N=184) 84% (154) were positive results 70% (108) were described by Millennials

37 Qualitative Results – Positive CIs By Flickr® user onefemme

38 Qualitative Results – Negative CIs Online Survey (N=184) 54% (99) were negative results 75% (74) were Millennials

39 Qualitative Results – Negative CIs

40 Qualitative Results – Positive CIs Phone Interviews (N=107) Interviews yielded 122 positive CIs

41 Qualitative Results – Positive CIs Phone Interviews

42 Qualitative Results – Negative CIs Phone Interviews (N=107) Interviews yielded 112 negative CIs

43 Most important for success Accuracy Correct answers Convenience Delivery Discussion & Implications Non-Users Value Knowledgeable Positive attitude Good communication skills

44 Unaware of service Convenience Prefer FtF least intimidating Online sources more convenient Discussion & Implications

45 Unaware services exist Don’t think librarians can help Satisfied with other sources May use if available 24/7 Discussion & Implications

46 Millennials Value convenience & online access (sources & services) Value friendliness Concerned questions annoying Discussion & Implications Millennials vs. Adults Adults Chat too complicated Typing skills not adequate

47 Need: System Development Improved VR Practice Theory Development Marketing Conclusion Providers must understand non-users to meet their needs.

48 End Notes This is one of the outcomes from the project Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User, and Librarian Perspectives Funded by IMLS, Rutgers, & OCLC Inc. Project web site: activities/synchronicity/default.htm


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