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1 INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD © TPS 2007.

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1 1 INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD © TPS 2007

2 2 Use your mouse to move around the software. You can either click anywhere on the screen to get the next animation or click on a button if you see one on the screen. Always move the mouse before you click it. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD

3 3 Introduction to the development of the child Intellectual development Stages of development The role of parents Communication Numbers, reading and writing Conclusions INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD

4 4 In your child development studies, you will study the various types of development that a baby and young child undergoes. Introduction to the development of the child You will also consider: INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

5 5 Intellectual development includes looking at how the child is influenced by inheritance or its genetic make- up. It also considers the environment where the child lives and is brought up and how much this will influence the child. Introduction to the development of the child INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

6 6 You will also look at to what degree factors such as stimulation and encouragement can help the progress of a child. Understanding how children learn in order to communicate and acquire language are other areas that you will study. Introduction to the development of the child INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

7 7 You will also look at the ways in which children acquire knowledge of numbers and reading and writing skills. Introduction to the development of the child INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

8 8 Let’s consider now the child’s intellectual development. This involves the development of a child’s mind. How do children begin to know, reason, recognise people and objects? INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

9 9 Let’s consider now the child’s intellectual development. This involves the development of a child’s mind. How do children learn communication skills and language skills? INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

10 10 Let’s consider now the child’s intellectual development. This involves the development of a child’s mind. How do they learn to read and write? INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

11 11 Let’s consider now the child’s intellectual development. This involves the development of a child’s mind. How do they begin to recognise numbers? These are some of the questions that we shall examine. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

12 12 nature nurture There has been much debate about nature versus nurture. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

13 13 This refers to the importance in child development of a child’s innate qualities. In other words, the qualities that he/she was born with (nature). INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

14 14 Nurture implies that personal experience that a child undergoes determines differences (influence of parents, environment, for example). INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

15 15 One of the first theorists to examine children’s cognitive development was Jean Piaget ( ). Cognitive means relating to mental abilities – memory, thinking, reasoning, problem solving. equilibration Piaget put forward the theory that children adapted to their environment by using what he called equilibration. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

16 16 This means that the child tries to balance the demands of the environment and their own cognitive process. Piaget believed that there were certain stages of cognitive development, each having new mental abilities. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

17 17 Piaget called the development of the child from birth to the age of about two years old, the sensorimotor stage. Piaget saw during this stage, much progress, due to what he called circular reactions. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

18 18 The child carries out an action, realises that it is pleasurable so repeats it. So the process goes around again. This is what is meant by circular. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

19 19 Psychologists still argue about which has the greater effect on child development. What is acknowledged is that stimulation and encouragement from the family help a child to develop intellectually. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

20 20 Piaget believed that cognitive development stemmed from the experiences that the child encountered in the surrounding environment. By supporting a child in his or her learning, parents ensure that the child has a ‘head start’. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

21 21 Sensory capacities and language are important elements of intellectual development and the changes that occur in language development are as marked as those in motor skills. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

22 22 Let’s consider some of the basic changes that occur as the child grows older. (Again, it’s important to remember that not all children will fall into these age limit categories; some will develop earlier; some later.) INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

23 23 Sleeps or feeds for most of the day Is helpless Makes basic distinctions in vision, hearing, smelling, tasting, touch and temperature, has a perception of pain Cries INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

24 24 Smiles at a face Light, sound, touch and smell all act as stimuli Colour perception, visual exploration, looks around the immediate environment and fixes on a face Cries, grunts, coos INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

25 25 Recognises his/her mother Begins to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people so no longer smiles at everyone Can detect where sounds are emitting from without visual cues Laughs, babbling, coos Wants to touch objects and put them in his/her mouth INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

26 26 Very attached to his/her mother Listens intently, may imitate sounds, links things in the environment with sounds Pre-speech continues, jabbering to combine syllables INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

27 27 Displays a fear of strangers Responsive to his/her name May understand simple commands, says one or two words, imitates sounds INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

28 28 Displays curiosity Explores Obeys simple commands Reacts to simple instructions, especially if vocal or physical cues are given Vocabulary of more than 20 words, mainly nouns INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

29 29 Fears being separated from family, particularly mother Displays more emotions: anger, tantrums Copies actions of others Recognises and names colours Start to ask questions – What? Who? Begins to use short sentences, speech becomes more understandable, vocabulary of up to 300 words INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

30 30 Can cope with many routines of home life Begins to talk clearly Much of the child’s speech is understandable, using plurals and past tense, verbs are more prominent Begins to ask Where? at about the age of 3 At the age of 4 Why? When? How? come into use INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

31 31 Takes on more responsibility for tasks and understands how to manipulate objects to use them Talks clearly Uses adult sounds and is building sentences using basic grammar of the language INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

32 32 In all of these age categories, parents should be aware that there are many things that they can do to help the intellectual development of their child. Sadly, too, they can hinder that development if they do not spend time on the child. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

33 33 In the first year of intellectual development, parents help the development of the child by: Talking to the child INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

34 34 In the first year In the first year, parents help the development of the child by: Playing with the child INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

35 35 In the first year In the first year, parents help the development of the child by: Providing toys or objects to handle and explore INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

36 36 In the first year In the first year, parents help the development of the child by: Positioning the child so that he/she can see what is happening around him/her INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

37 37 In the first year In the first year, parents help the development of the child by: Encouraging and praising new skills – even if they are slow and time-consuming, such as feeding himself/herself INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

38 38 From 9 months onwards From 9 months onwards, parents help the development of the child by: reading to the child, telling stories, interesting the child in pictures in books INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

39 39 After the first year After the first year, parents help the development of the child by: Continuing to talk to the child INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

40 40 After the first year After the first year, parents help the development of the child by: Allowing the child to continue practising new skills INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

41 41 After the first year After the first year, parents help the development of the child by: Encouraging the child to socialise with other children and play with them INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

42 42 After the first year After the first year, parents help the development of the child by: Making things with the child INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

43 43 After the first year After the first year, parents help the development of the child by: Looking at books and continuing to read with the child INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

44 44 After the first year After the first year, parents help the development of the child by: Permit the child to explore without letting the child put himself/herself into danger INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

45 45 Books and pictures help the child to understand objects in the world. Pictures also give the child an opportunity to begin to be aware of numbers, colour, shapes and sizes. Reading to a child makes them have to listen and concentrate. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

46 46 Through play and contact with adults, children begin to understand ideas and through their questions test out their understanding of those ideas. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

47 47 Children of a young age also copy what they see around them. Parents and carers therefore need to set a good example which the child can follow. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

48 48 It goes without saying that parents will hinder the development of the child by: Not talking to the child INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

49 49 It goes without saying that parents will hinder the development of the child by: Not allowing them to practise new skills INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

50 50 It goes without saying that parents will hinder the development of the child by: Forcing the child to have little or no contact with other children INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

51 51 It goes without saying that parents will hinder the development of the child by: Not giving the child opportunities to play, create or explore INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

52 52 It goes without saying that parents will hinder the development of the child by: Not reading to the child INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

53 53 The intellectual development of the child will also be hindered if an illness or disability goes undetected. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

54 54 Deafness, blindness or poor vision or any other illness that may prevent the child from developing at a normal rate needs to be investigated as early as possible so that the problem can be addressed speedily. This also includes lack of communication skills, of course. We shall look next at the development of communication. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

55 55 Speech development is a critical part of the child’s development. Babies want to communicate from an early age. Communication INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

56 56 Learning to talk though takes time and children need adults to talk to them in order to begin the process of learning to talk. Listening to adults talk is also important for a child. Communication INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

57 57 Children need adults to talk to them. Being placed in front of the television is no substitute for a parent’s or carer's direct communication with the child. Communication INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

58 58 Babies make sounds and babble to themselves. Hearing plays an important part in their acquisition of communication skills too. Communication INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

59 59 When they reach the point of copying sounds that they hear from the people around them, they will copy the language that is spoken to them. If no one takes the trouble to talk to them, they will have very poor communication skills. Communication INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

60 60 Let’s look now at how speech develops and the sorts of sounds that a child makes at different stages. Remember that all children will develop their speech at different ages – there are no hard and fast rules. Communication INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

61 61 SPEECHNewborn Cries, hiccups, burps One month Small sounds Followed by cooing and gurgling Three months Gurgles, babbles Communication HEARINGNewborn Startled by noises One month Pauses and listens to noises such as machines Soothed by singing Four months Smiles at the sound of mother’s voice INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

62 62 SPEECH 6-7 months Many sounds are produced now (e.g. ba, ba, ba or da, da, da) Baby laughs and screams This is a type of nonsense speech (jargon) Communication HEARING 6-7 months The baby will turn to the direction of his/her mother’s voice Will listen when spoken to INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

63 63 SPEECH 9 months Dad-dad and mum-mum are repeated Copying sounds made by adults begins too Holophrases begin to be used: one word for a more complex idea e.g. “food” means “I’m hungry; I want my dinner” The holophrase is usually enough to express the child’s needs. HEARING 9 months The baby looks around to find the source of a noise that he cannot see INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT Communication

64 64 SPEECH 12 months Can say two or three words with meaning (telegraphic speech) 18 months Child can say some words – on average 5-20 words Practises echolalia (repeating a word or phrase over and over again)HEARING 12 months The baby can respond to his/her own name and to a few familiar words 18 months The baby continues to respond to an increasing number of words and commands Communication INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

65 65 SPEECH 24 months Combines words into short sentences – noun + verb Vocabulary of about words Volume and pitch of voice not yet controlled HEARING 24 months Responds to commands like: “show me….” Communication INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

66 66 SPEECH 36 months Iyoume Should be using I, you, me by now Can use plurals Three word sentences should be emerging words of vocabulary HEARING 36 months Understands simple questions dealing with the child’s environment The child hears and understands more than he can answer at this stage Communication INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

67 67 SPEECH 48 months Can name common objects and animals Can name objects in picture books Has most vowels and now has mastered p, b, m, w and n Repeats many words and phrases HEARING 48 months Readily follows simple commands Communication INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

68 68 SPEECH 60 months Can use descriptive words, adjectives Should have mastered all the vowels and consonants Should be able to explain common objects Should be able to use longer sentences Difficulties with pronunciation should have been resolved by nowHEARING 60 months Should be able to follow three commands successively Should be able to listen to a sentence as long as nine words and repeat it. Communication INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

69 69 Most children will follow this pattern of speech and communication. Some may develop a stutter as they talk, usually because they want to say so much at once. This is usually temporary and like most things with children, it goes away in time and if attention is not called to it. Occasionally the stutter or stammer continues and in this case parents should take advice and a speech therapist may be called in to assess the child. Communication INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

70 70 Some children are slow to talk. They just are. Members of their family may have been too before them. Other children may not receive enough attention. Children learn from adults who talk to them. In a busy household, some children may not receive enough individual attention to develop their speech at the appropriate speed. Deafness, a speech disorder that stems from a physical defect or even shyness, can all be reasons why a child has difficulty with speech. Communication INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

71 71 Babies need adults to share their sounds and to respond to the sounds that they are making. It cannot be emphasised enough how much parents will influence their young child’s speech. Communication INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

72 72 Numbers, reading and writing Numbers, reading and writing Let’s consider now other communication skills that children learn. Children learn about numbers and learn how to begin to read and write. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

73 73 Numbers, reading and writing Numbers, reading and writing Numbers are all around a child. They hear numbers from an early age. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

74 74 Numbers, reading and writing Numbers, reading and writing Gradually a child begins to acquire the skill to have the numbers in the correct order. (This may take some time.) Matching word numbers to objects helps in this process. The comparative words ‘first’, ‘second’ and ‘third’ and so on will come next and then a deeper understanding of the concept of what the numbers actually mean. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

75 75 Numbers, reading and writing Numbers, reading and writing Understanding the concept of a number allows the child to appreciate that by reordering objects, the child does not change the number of objects. This is a concept that takes time to be learned by a child. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

76 76 Numbers, reading and writing Numbers, reading and writing Learning to recognise the shape of a digit and to write it will come next in the learning process. The child will then move on to doing sums and in this way will manipulate numbers. Songs and games help to reinforce numbers to a child and again, the importance of the input of parents or carers cannot be overestimated. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

77 77 Numbers, reading and writing Numbers, reading and writing Reading and writing is taught to a child. A child will approach reading and writing much more positively if books have been used in the home and listening to stories and looking at pictures in books have become the norm. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

78 78 Numbers, reading and writing Numbers, reading and writing Learning to read, the child recognises letters and associates a particular letter with a particular sound. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

79 79 Numbers, reading and writing Numbers, reading and writing The next process is understanding that groups of letters or sounds make words that have a specific meaning. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

80 80 Numbers, reading and writing Numbers, reading and writing The child then moves to the stage of understanding that groups of words or phrases have meanings. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

81 81 Numbers, reading and writing Numbers, reading and writing By encouraging a child to look at books, the parent can read out aloud words and follow them with their finger in the text. The child will begin to recognise words. The process is continued when the child goes to school. Learning to read is a long process. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

82 82 Numbers, reading and writing Numbers, reading and writing Learning to write is preceded by learning to draw. Children have to be able to hold a pencil to begin to write and most children will hold a pencil first in order to draw. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

83 83 Numbers, reading and writing Numbers, reading and writing The first ‘drawing’ is just a scribble. The scribbles then move to becoming large-headed people. As the child gains more control over the pencil, the drawings begin to look more like reality. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

84 84 Numbers, reading and writing Numbers, reading and writing Forming the shapes of letters have to be learned Learning to spell becomes necessary too Writing in a straight line needs to be mastered Spacing the words out is a skill to acquire Using correct grammar is necessary Mastering the rules of punctuation can be difficult Joining up letters eventually will also be required INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

85 85 Numbers, reading and writing Numbers, reading and writing Dyslexia is a condition that makes reading, writing and spelling difficult for children. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

86 86 Numbers, reading and writing Numbers, reading and writing Letters appear moved in words or confusing for the child. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

87 87 Numbers, reading and writing Numbers, reading and writing Specialist help is required for children who have dyslexia so that they can overcome as many of the problems associated with this condition as possible and are referred to specialist teachers. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

88 88 Conclusion Conclusion We have been considering the issues involved in the intellectual development of a child. These have included biological mechanisms (nature) and the influence of socialisation (nurture). We have also looked closely at how development of children is influenced by the way in which their parents interact with them. We have also acknowledged that the child’s environment and the activities that he/she is engaged in will alter the rate of development. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

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