Presentation on theme: "Intellectual Development from One to Three"— Presentation transcript:
1Intellectual Development from One to Three Understanding Learning and the Mind
2IntelligenceThe ability to interpret or understand everyday situations and to use that experience when faced with new situations or problems.
3Methods of Learning Incident learning Unplanned learning Trial and error learningTrying several solutions before finding one that worksImitationLearning by watching and copying othersDirect learningLearning that results from being taught
4The Mind at Work Attention Memory Perception Reasoning Imagination CreativityCuriosity
5Attention Sensory information Block out 1-3 year olds, short attention spanIncreases as child gets older. Better able to block out outside distractions.
6Memory Without memory NO LEARNING As child gets older, they are better able to react to a situation by remembering similar experiences.
7Perception Perception: Information received through the senses Caregivers play a key role in developing perceptionUse descriptive observations“Look at the blue coat. Your shirt is blue, too. Let’s see what other blue things we can find.”
8Perception 2 and 3 year olds constantly ask WhyWhat’s thatHow does it workMr. Warkentin constantly asks why .. What’s that .. Just like a 2 year old.
9PerceptionIf the response is usually an absent-minded … uh-huh, because, or don’t bother me now—I’m busy … the child eventually stops asking questions.
10Reasoning Mr. Cove has no sense of reasoning. Reasoning is the basic ability to solve problems and make decisions.Babies show the beginning of simple problem solving ability at about 4-6 months.1-3 year olds gradually learn more sophisticated reasoning skills.
11ImaginationImagination becomes apparent at about 2 years of age (no one knows if babies have imagination).Active imagination enhances learningRespect a child’s imagination and respond carefully.
12CreativityImagination is used to produce something.
13Encouraging Creativity Encourage play activities that depend on exploration and imagination.Provide toys that can be used in more than one way.Provide unstructured time.Remember that the process of creativity is more important that the product.Praise the child’s efforts with deeds as well as words.
14Curiosity Curiosity fuels brain development and learning. Sometimes parents stifle that curiosity by overprotecting the child or the home.Patience and humor are essential.
15Intellectual Development from One to Three Encouraging Learning from One to Three
16Readiness for Learning Children can learn a new skill only when they are physically and intellectually ready. When adults push children to learn things they aren’t ready for, the children can’t succeed. A sense of failure may slow the child’s learning, rather than increase it as the adult had intended.
17Guiding Learning Give your time and attention Take advantage of simple learning opportunitiesAllow time for thinkingGive only as much help as the child needs to succeedEncourage children to draw their own conclusionsShow how to solve problemsMaintain a positive attitudeKeep explanations simple and on the child’s levelAllow children to explore and discoverHelp the children understand the world and how it worksTake frequent breaks
18Speech DevelopmentIn the toddler and preschool years, language abilities grow at a very rapid pace. As with other areas of development, children vary greatly in the timing of their speaking skills.
19Speech DevelopmentBetween their first and second birthdays, children work at learning new words. They like to learn the names of everything and they enjoy listening to the sounds words make.12 months – 2 – 8 words2 years old – 200 words
20Speech DevelopmentA child’s language development is strongly influenced by how caregivers and older children speak to him or her. Therefore, using “baby talk” can hinder a child’s speaking skills.
21Encourage language development and learning in toddlers by: Talking to them about their lives.Speaking in a clear and engaging way.Take time to describe whatever you are seeing and doing.
22Age 1 – 2:Children use one or two words rather than a whole sentence to express a thoughtExample: “Water” means “I want a drink of water”
23Age 2: Children combine a few words to make short sentences Example: “Doggie bark”. “Jimmy fall down”
24Age 2 ½:Children begin to learn some rules of grammar. Child begins to add an s to words to make them plural.Example: Hand Hands, Eye Eyes, Foot Foots, Tooth Tooths
25Speech DifficultiesMany parents are concerned about “late talkers”. Some make the mistake of pressuring the child who talks late or whose speech is unclear. Most often, this pressure just makes the child aware of the problem and may make it worse.A child who doesn’t seem to understand what is said and doesn’t speak at all or who speaks very little should be examined.
26Speech DifficultiesSpeech-language pathologists are specialists trained to detect and correct speech problems. Poor hearing, cognitive disabilities, learning disabilities, and emotional problems may slow a child’s speech.Articulation is the ability to use clear, distinct speech. Some children skip syllables or leave off the endings of words. These problems usually correct themselves in time.
27Speech DifficultiesA speech language pathologist can determine whether a problem is likely to go away over time or if therapy is needed.Avoid constantly correcting a child’s pronunciation. Instead be careful to set a good example with your own speech.
28StutteringStuttering is a more serious speech difficulty for young children. A true stutter can be identified by the rhythm, pitch, and speech of speech. It is rapid, forced, and short and sharp in sound. Usually, the child repeats only the beginning sound of a word.The cause or causes of stuttering are still not clearly understood. Some children need the help of a speech-language pathologist to overcome the problem. Most children who stutter, however, often outgrow it.