2There are three forms of the present tense. Simple Present: He takes vitamins every day.Present Progressive: We are working on a project right now.Present Perfect: I have driven there many times.
3Forming the Simple Present I / You / We / They leave at 5:00.I / You / We / They do not leave at 5:00.He / She / It leaves at 5:00.He / She / It does not leave at 5:00.
4Forming the Simple Present with Be I am in the office.I am not in the office.You / We / They are in the office.You / We / They are not in the office.He / She / It is in the office.He / She / It is not in the office.
5Using the Simple Present 1. General truths or facts:It takes five hours to fly to New York.2. Habits or routines:Louise gets up at 7:00 every morning.3. Book or movies:In the novel Kindred, Dana travels back in time and lives the life of a slave.
6Use the simple present with non-action verbs that express thoughts, feelings, sense, possession, and appearance.Thoughts: agree, believe/think, know, mean, rememberI think this is the best school in the area.Feelings: appreciate, have, like, love, need, prefer, wantI like chocolate ice cream better than vanilla.Senses: feel, hear, see, smell, tasteWe hear the dog barking next door.Possession: belong, have, ownHe has three dogs in the backyard.Appearance: appear, be, look, seemYou look a little tired today.
7Use the following time words with the simple present: always rarely oftennormally seldom sometimesusually never on Fridaysregularly daily annuallyoccasionally monthly every week
8Practice using the simple present. Correct the errors in verb tense. My sister don’t like to read.Water is freezing at 32° Fahrenheit.Steve is belonging to the economics club.We have gone there all the time.Colleen have a new computer.
9Forming the Present Progressive Use the simple present form of be (am, is, are) + the present participle (-ing) form of the verb.I am reading a good book.I am not reading a good book.You / We / They are studying in the library.You / We / They are not studying in the library.He / She / It is taking a long time.He / She / It is not taking a long time.
10Using the Present Progressive 1. Current actions or states:Nicholas is studying for a test right now.2. Current actions over a period of time:Tae is majoring in economics at USC.3. Temporary actions:John is speaking Spanish. (right now)Miguel speaks Spanish. (permanent ability)
11The soup tastes very good. Not The soup is tasting very good. REMEMBER!With non-action verbs, use the simple present.The soup tastes very good.NotThe soup is tasting very good.
12Use the following time words with the present progressive: now right now at presenttoday these days nowadayscurrently presently this weekthis year at this momentat this time
13Practice using the present progressive Practice using the present progressive. Correct the errors in verb tense.She is knowing the correct answer.At this moment, Mia listens to her iPod.Americans are celebrating Thanksgiving in November.I take two history classes this semester.Paul is drive to San Francisco today.
14Forming the Present Perfect Use the simple present form of have (have, has) + the past participle (-ed/-en) form of the verb.I / You / We / They have lived here since 1998.I / You / We / They have not lived here since 1998.He / She / It has lived here since 1998.He / She / It has not lived here since 1998.
15Using the Present Perfect 1. Unspecified time(s) in the past:They have seen that movie (many times) before.2. Began in the past, continues to the present, and possibly into the future:Mrs. Alvarez has lived here since 1972.3. Recently completed:I have just finished a very difficult test.
16Use the following time words with the present perfect: since for recentlyyet* already until nowso far just several/many times*Yet is only used in questions and negative statements.
17Practice using the present perfect. Correct the errors in verb tense. Alex and Hamid didn’t sleep since yesterday.In recent years, I drive the coastal highway many times.He is president for almost eight years.I am sick recently.Marco never went to Costa Rica before.[Check Eye on Editing 2, page 4, Self Check 1]
18There are three forms of the past tense. Simple Past: He went to the movies last night.Past Progressive: We were living in Indonesia in the 1990s.Past Perfect: I had made the plans before I talked to him.
19Forming the Simple Past with Regular Verbs For all subjects add –ed or –d to the base verb.I cleaned the house last night.I did not clean the house last night.You walked at nine months old.You did not walk at nine months old.He lived in Fullerton two years ago.He did not live in Fullerton two years ago.We danced until midnight.We did not dance until midnight.They looked tired after final exams.They did not look tired after final exams.
20Irregular Past Tense Verbs Irregular verbs have the same past tense form for all subjects.do → did buy → boughthave → had eat → atecome → came run → rango → went take → took
21Forming the Simple Past with Be I / He / She / It was in Hong Kong last year.You / We / They were in Hong Kong last year.
221. Actions that ended in the past: Alvin graduated last June. Using the Simple Past1. Actions that ended in the past:Alvin graduated last June.2. Habitual past actions*:My parents ate at the same restaurant every Friday night for 20 years.*Used to and would can also be used for habitual past actions.
23Use the following time words with the simple past: yesterdaythe day before yesterdaylast week/month/yeara few minutes/hours/days agoin 1980in the 90sin the past
24Practice using the simple past. Correct the errors in verb tense. As a child, I used to watching a lot of TV.Richard didn’t completed the essay on time.A few years ago, he gets married.Francoise only speaks French when she lived in Paris.When Katherine and Lee finished the test?
25Forming the Past Progressive Use the past form of be (was, were) + the present participle (-ing).I / He / She / It was sitting in the garden.You / We / They were sitting in the garden.
26Using the Past Progressive 1. Actions that were in progress at a specific time in the past:In 1995 she was living in Washington DC.2. One past action interrupted by another past action:While I was eating dinner the phone rang.3. An ongoing action:Last December, I was failing the course. (At this point in time, I was failing; perhaps I didn’t fail the course.)Last December, I failed the course. (I definitely failed the course.)4. Use the simple past with non-action verbs.During the test, I knew all the answers.NotDuring the test, I was knowing all the answers.
27Use the following time words with the past progressive: at that time/momentduringat the timein the 1950s/70s
28Practice using the past progressive. Correct the errors in verb tense. Lia was having many friends by the end of the semester.Ann was take a pronunciation class but dropped it.I saw my favorite teacher while I ate lunch in the cafeteria.At 11:00 this morning, I still slept.On the second day of the semester, I was joining the class.
29Forming the Past Perfect Use the simple past form of have (had) + the past participle (-ed/-en) form of the verb.I / You /He / We / They had started before everyone arrived.Many verbs have irregular past participles.Some end in –en (taken, given, eaten, driven, written).Others end in –t (built, meant, slept).Common irregular past participles include been, done, drunk, gone, and read.
30Using the Past Perfect1. Past actions that happened before another past action:The rain had stopped by the time we left work.The students saw the movie after they had read the book.2. Past actions that happened before a specific past time:Susan had never seen this movie before.By midnight the party had ended.
31The simple past can often replace the past perfect with no change in meaning. She went to dinner after she had finished the work.OrShe went to dinner after she finished the work.
32IMPORTANT NOTE:When only one past event is mentioned, use the simple past, not the past perfect.We used a dictionary during the test.NotWe had used a dictionary during the test.
33Use the following time words with the past perfect: beforeafteruntilwhenby thenby the time
34Practice using the past perfect. Correct the errors in verb tense. When the movie ended, Joan realized her friends left.Grace had realized that she had left the house unlocked.She wrote the essay by the time it was due.We had attended the last lecture yesterday.The child didn’t see a lion before that day.[Check Eye on Editing 2, page 6, Self Check 2]
35There are four forms of the future. Simple Future: We will get home about 10:00.be going to: I am going to take a class next semester.Present Progressive: I am eating at Ki’s house tonight.Simple Present: Our plane leaves at 5:00.
36Forming the FutureSimple FutureI / You / He / It / We / They will arrive later today.I / You / He / It / We / They will not [won’t] arrive later today.
37Using the Simple Future Scheduled events:The movie will begin at 8:30.2. Predictions:It will be very hot tomorrow.3. Promises:I will never tell your secret.4. Offers:I will drive you to school tomorrow.5. Request:Will you take a walk with me?
38Forming the Futurebe going toI am going to move next summer.I am not going to move next summer.You / We / They are going to move next summer.You / We / They are not going to move next summer.He / She / It is going to move next summer.He / She / It is not going to move next summer.
39Using the future with be going to Planned events:I am going to take five classes next semester.2. Predictions:I think this class is going to be very difficult.
40Forming the FuturePresent ProgressiveI am eating dinner with Elena tonight.I am not eating dinner with Elena tonight.You / We / They are eating dinner with Elena tonight.You / We / They are not eating dinner with Elena tonight.He / She / It is eating dinner with Elena tonight.He / She / It is not eating dinner with Elena tonight.
41Using the future with the present progressive Plans already made:I am having a vocabulary test tomorrow morning.
42Using the future with the simple present Schedule events or events on a timetable:The bus departs at 6:00 tomorrow morning.The performance begins in 15 minutes.Verbs commonly used in the simple present to refer to the future are: arrive, begin, depart, finish, leave, and start.
43Use the following time words with the future: tonighttomorrowthe day after tomorrowlaternext weeklater todaythis afternoon/evening
44Practice using the future. Correct the errors in verb tense. Tomas and Ruben going to leave for Mexico.Zack is a year old next summer.The final exam tomorrow is difficult.We will remodeling our house next summer.[Check Eye on Editing 2, page 8, Self Check 3]