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Presentation on theme: "Minerals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Minerals

2 Minerals Naturally occurring Inorganic
Crystalline solid (atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern) Definite chemical composition

3 Why do we study Minerals?
Starting point for all geologic formations and activity Rocks and molten rock (lava, magma) are what shape the surface of our planet

4 Minerals Can Be Elements or Compounds
Single elements that are also minerals are called native elements (ex: copper) Most minerals are compounds made from different elements 8 most common elements: Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminum, Iron, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium

5 How Minerals Form The cooling and hardening of magma
When water containing dissolved ions evaporate Sustained pressure, heat, or chemical action can change minerals into other minerals

6 Mineral’s Crystalline Structure
All minerals are crystalline (all of their atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern) The atoms pattern can be used to identify a mineral Crystal system controls the way a mineral forms and breaks

7 Crystal System Models Color the shapes according the colors listed below. A:Red B: Blue C: Green D:Yellow E: Orange F: White Cut them out Fold them along all the black lines Put glue on the small tabs and CAREFULLY glue them into the shapes they fold into. You will need the small images of the crystals. Cut them and secure them in a safe place. Do NOT lose them!

8 The 6 Crystal Systems: #1 Cubic System
3 axes of equal length that intersect at 90 degree angles Example Halite (Rock Salt)

9 The Six Crystal Systems #2
Orthorhombic System Three axis of different length that intersect at 90 degree angles Examples: Sulfur, Topaz

10 The Six Crystal Systems #3
Tetragonal System Three axes, 2 of the same length, one that differs Examples: Wulfenite

11 The Six Crystal Systems #4
Triclinic System Three axes of unequal length that intersect at oblique angles. Example: Turquoise

12 The Six Crystal Systems #5
Hexagonal System Three horizontal axes that are the same length, and a vertical axis that is longer then the horizontal axes. Example: Quartz Graphite

13 The Six Crystal Systems #6
Monoclinic System Three unequal axes, two intersect at 90 degrees, the third is oblique to the other two Example: Gypsum, Borax

14 Physical Properties Color: The color as it appears to the naked eye
Not effective in identifying minerals Some are similar in color Others can have their color changed Some come in multiple colors

15 Physical Properties Streak: the color of the powder a mineral leaves after rubbing it on a streak plate. More effective than color because the streak is often different than the color, and can be distinct to the mineral

16 Properties Cont’d Luster: the way a mineral shines and reflects light
Metallic Luster: Shines like a polished metal Ex: Pyrite, Galena, Hematite, Magnetite Non-Metallic: Anything non-metallic. Ex: Quartz, Fluorite, Sulfur, Opal

17 Mohs Hardness Scale Hardness: A mineral’s resistance to being scratched Moh’s Hardness Scale: The hardness of minerals relative to each other/scratching implements. These are labeled 1-10, 1 being the softest, 10 the hardest.

18 Mineral Tools 1.Talc Fingernail (2.5) 2.Gypsum 3.Calcite Nail (Avoid the point) (4.5) 4.Fluorite 5.Apatite Glass (5.5) 6.Feldspar 7.Quartz Streak Plate (5-8) 8.Topaz 9.Corundum 10. Diamond

19 Cleavage Cleavage: the tendency of a mineral to split along a certain plane or planes Not all minerals have cleavage We describe it in numbers of planes and angles of intersection

20 Fracture Fracture: When minerals don’t break along certain planes
3 KINDS Conchoidal: Shell Like and smooth Hackly: Jagged Edges Fibrous: Breaks into strands

21 Special Properties Texture: Having a unique feel to the touch (talc, graphite) Effervescence: Reacts by bubbling when exposed to hydrochloric acid (calcite, dolomite) Taste: What does it taste like?… Duh… (Halite/Rock Salt)

22 Special Properties Cont’d
Smell: (Sulfur smells like eggs) Magnetism: Mineral has magnetic properties (Magnetite) Density: the amount of water it displaces (Metallic lusters are generally denser) Phosphorescence: Does it glow under black light? (Fluorite)

23 Today = Finish Dummies Guide
Make sure all information is complete. All charts and test are complete. Accurately identify minerals A, B, C, D using your notes and classification chart.

24 The Silicates Silicates: Compound of the elements Silicon and Oxygen
90% of minerals are silicates Form from the cooling of Lava/Magma The Si and O join to form Silicon-Oxygen Tetrahedrons

25 Silicate Minerals: Quartz:
Multiple forms of quartz (rose, amethyst, crystal) Conchoidal Fracture Mohs Hardness: 7 Luster: Glassy


27 Silicate Minerals Continued…
Feldspar: The most abundant family of minerals in earth crust Plagioclase or Orthoclase Feldspar 2-3 directions of cleavage Mohs Hardness: 6 Luster: Pearly

28 Silicate Minerals Continued…
Mica  2 Types Muscovite mica (white mica), and Biotite mica (black or brown) One distinct Cleavage (makes long sheets) Mohs Hardness: 2.5 Luster: Pearly

29 Silicate Minerals Continued…
Talc The softest mineral, talcum powder is pure ground up talc 1 direction of cleavage Mohs Hardness: 1 Luster: Pearly/Oily

30 Silicate Minerals Continued…
Olivine: Olive green silicate Belongs to a family where silicates bond to metal ions, ocassionally found in meteors Conchoidal Fracture Mohs Hardness: 6.5 Luster: Glassy

31 Silicate Minerals Continued…
Garnet: A very common gemstone Conchoidal Fracture Hardness: 6-7.5 Luster: Vitreous to resinous

32 Other Mineral Groups Carbonates 2nd most common mineral group
Contains the elements carbon and oxygen and one or more other metallic elements EX. Calcite, Dolomite

33 Carbonate Minerals CALCITE FIZZES WITH ACID!!! Luster: Glassy Calcite:
Composed of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) CALCITE FIZZES WITH ACID!!! 3 directions of cleavage Mohs Hardness: 3 Luster: Glassy

34 Carbonate Minerals Luster: Glassy/Vitreous Dolomite:
Composed of a Magnesium Carbonate (MgCO3) 3 directions of cleavage Mohs Hardness: 3.5 to 4.0 Luster: Glassy/Vitreous

35 Other Mineral Groups Halides:
Contain a halogen ion plus one of more elements Formed from salt water evaporation EX. Halite, Fluorite

36 Other Mineral Groups Sulfides/ Sulfates:
Contain the element sulfur and one other element, often metallic EX. Gypsum, Pyrite

37 Bellringer Quiz 1. ______The way a mineral reflects or “reacts” to light 2. ______A mineral’s resistance to being scratched 3. ______ Includes taste, effervesence, smell, phosphorescence 4. ______Describes the way minerals naturally split 5. ______The color of a minerals powder when rubbed across an unglazed porcelain plate 6. ______When minerals don’t break along cleavage lines 7. ______Considered to be a not-reliable way to I.D. minerals 8. Define mineral! 9. Why are color AND luster unreliable for IDing minerals?

38 Other Mineral Groups Oxides: Contain oxygen and one or more other element usual a metal. Can form from magma or from weathering EX. Hematite (Rust), Corundum, Magnetite

39 Other Mineral Groups Native Elements:elements that exists in relative pure forms Many form from hydrothermal solutions EX. Diamond and Graphite (carbon), silver, gold, copper, sulfur

40 Mineral uses Talc – talcum powder
Quartz – Glass, Sand Paper, Amethyst Gems Diamond – Gems, drills Beryl – Emerald Gems Corundum – Ruby Gems Gypsum – Drywall Halite – Rock Salt Copper – Wire, Jewelry, etc… Galena - Lead ore

41 Bellringer Picture

42 Iron Oxide and Sulfates
Oxides -A mineral consisting of a metal element combined with oxygen Sulfates -A mineral consisting of a metal element combined with sulfur

43 Iron Oxide Minerals Hematite The most common Iron Oxide mineral
Red to brown streak on streak plate Mohs Hardness: 5 to 6 Luster:Metallic (sometimes earthy if it gets worn down)

44 Iron Oxide Minerals Magnetite: A black magnetic iron oxide
Mineral has magnetic properties Black streak Mohs Hardness: 5.5 to 6.5 Luster: Metallic to Dull

45 Iron Sulfides Pyrite: An Iron Sulfide (Fe3SO4)
Occurs in 6 and 12 sided crystals “Fools Gold” Greenish-Black streak Mohs Hardness: 6.0 Luster: Metallic

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