Presentation on theme: "Building a House Out of Minerals"— Presentation transcript:
1 Building a House Out of Minerals Cement is used for the foundation and chimneyof a house. Cement contains this mineralwhich is a source of calcium.___________________A roof is a barrier to snowand rain. What mineral is used in claysingles to cover the plywood sheetson the roof?___________________Exterior walls can be made of things such as aluminum or steel siding or brick. What is one mineral that could be found in aluminum siding?___________________Interior walls shape the rooms in a house. The wallboard covers the walls and is soft so that holes can be drilled in it for outlets and nails can be used to hang pictures. What mineral is wallboard made of?___________________Windows let in visible light and allow us to see outside. What clear mineral is used to make window glass?___________________Metal pipes are commonly used to carry fresh water into the house. In the 1950’s a poisonous mineral was used in plumbing, what was it?___________________Electrical wiring conducts electricity most wiring in made of metal. What mineral is often used for wiring?___________________Word Bank: Aluminum, Lead, Gypsum, Copper, Quartz, Illite (clay), Calcite
2 Composition and Structure of Minerals Properties of Minerals Minerals versus RocksComposition and Structure of MineralsProperties of MineralsMineral GroupsMineral ResourcesThe Star of Bombay182-carat star sapphireMinerals: Building Blocks of Rocks
3 Minerals Versus Rocks A rock is an aggregate of minerals Minerals are the building blocks that make up rocks
4 Varieties of Minerals More than 3000 different minerals Quartz Olivine (Peridot)Beryl (aquamarine)Native Copper
5 Definition of Mineral Naturally occurring Solid Inorganic (never living)Definite chemical compositionOrderly internal structure of atoms
7 How can 2 minerals with the same composition be so different? GraphiteDiamondChemical formula: CChemical formula: CHow can 2 minerals with the same composition be so different?
8 “Internal Arrangement of Atoms” controls most physical properties! What’s the point here?“Internal Arrangement of Atoms” controls most physical properties!
9 Mineral FormationCooling of magma-molten rock beneath the earth’s surfaceif it cools fast small crystalsif it cools slowly large crystalsCompounds dissolved in a liquid (water); liquid evaporates & leaves behind crystals
10 Most minerals made up of only 8 elements these 8 elements make up 98% of Earth’s crust Relative abundance of the most common elements in the Earth’s crustElementApproximate Percentage by WeightOxygen (O)46.6%Silicon (Si)27.7%Aluminum (Al)8.1%Iron (Fe)5.0%Calcium (Ca)3.6%Sodium (Na)2.8%Potassium (K)2.6%Magnesium (Mg)2.1%All Others1.7%Total100%
11 Mineral GroupsSilicates: contains silicon + oxygen + one or more other elements (Most common rock forming minerals are silicates)Carbonates: 1 carbon + 3 oxygen + other elementsOxides: 2 oxygen + other elementsSulfides: sulfur + other elementsSulfates: 1 sulfur + 4 oxygen + other elementsHalides: chlorine, fluorine, bromine, or Iodine + other elementsNative elements: elements that are uncombined
12 Silicates Mica Quartz Can you find the “silica” ? SiO2 KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F,Cl)2Can you find the “silica” ?
13 Silica Structure4 oxygen atoms for every 1 silicon atom
18 Mineral Properties Color Colorless quartzPurple quartz (amethyst)Brueno Jasper
19 Streak – The color of a mineral in its powdered form. Mineral PropertiesStreak – The color of a mineral in its powdered form.The Mineral Hematite Always Has a Red Brown Streak Whether It Is the Metallic or Earthy Variety.
20 Nonmetallic – vitreous (glassy), pearly, silky, resinous, and earthy Mineral PropertiesLuster – the appearance or quality of light reflected from the surface of the mineral.Metallic vs. nonmetallicNonmetallic – vitreous (glassy), pearly, silky, resinous, and earthyAmethyst with vitreous luster
21 Pyrite – Cubic Crystals Quartz -Hexagonal Crystals Mineral PropertiesCrystal form – the external expression of a mineral’s internal orderly arrangement of atoms.Pyrite – Cubic CrystalsQuartz -Hexagonal Crystals
22 Multiple cleavages in fluorite, halite and calcite Mineral PropertiesCleavage – The tendency of a mineral to cleave, or break, along planes of weak bonding.HaliteCalciteFluoriteMultiple cleavages in fluorite, halite and calciteSimple cleavage in micas
24 Mineral PropertiesFracture-Minerals that do not break along cleavage planes are said to possess fractureConchoidal fracture in quartz
25 Mineral PropertiesSpecific gravity – compares the weight of a mineral to the weight of an equal volume of water.High specific gravity of galena.
26 Additional Properties Effervescence - Calcite and powdered dolomite will effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl)Smell- Sphalerite will give off a rotten-egg smell when streaked on a streak plate. (Note: pure sulfur does not smell like rotten eggs!)Magnetism- Magnetite (AKA Lodestone) will pick up paper clips (weak samples will only be able to pick up staples)Taste- Halite is rock salt and will taste salty. *Do not taste the samples since some have been tested with acid to see if it is calcite.Fluorescence- some minerals (mostly forms of calcite) will glow in fluorescent colors under a black (UV) light.Double refraction- some clear forms of calcite (Iceland Spar) will make a double image of words.
28 Uses of MineralsGems: highly prized minerals because they are rare and beautifulMost gems are brighter and more colorful than common samples of mineralsEx: Emeralds, rubies, diamondsEx. Amethyst: a form of quartz with traces of iron, sapphiresTrace amounts of elements can make some gems more rare than others = More money
29 Uses of MineralsOres: a mineral is an ore if it contains a useful substance that can be mined for a profitEx. Al from bauxiteFe from hematiteTitanium from rutile
30 Asbestos A mineral with threadlike, flexible fibers Used for insulation and fire protection = doesn’t burn or conduct heatWhen these fibers become loose and airborne → often get into the lungs where they’ve been known to cause cancer (carcinogen)