Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 15 Families and Intimate Relationships Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Families and Intimate Relationships Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15 Families and Intimate Relationships Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum

2 Fig. 15.1

3 Theoretical Perspectives on the Family Basic Concepts –Kinship comprises either genetic ties or ties initiated by marriage –A family is a group of kin having responsibility for children’s upbringing –Marriage is a union of two persons living together in a socially approved sexual relationship

4 Theoretical Perspectives on the Family Basic Concepts (cont) –Nuclear family is a household in which a married couple or single parent lives with their own or adopted children –Extended family is where kin in addition to parents and children live in the same household or have close relationships

5 Theoretical Perspectives on the Family Basic Concepts (cont) –In Western societies, marriage and family are associated with monogamy, a culturally approved sexual relationship between one man and one woman Other cultures tolerate or encourage polygamy, where an individual may have two or more spouses at a time Polygyny (man marries more than one wife) is far more common than polyandry (woman marries more than one husband)

6 Theoretical Perspectives on the Family Functionalism –Family performs important tasks that contribute to society’s basic needs, perpetuate social order Family’s two main functions according to Parsons: primary socialization (children learn social norms) and personality stabilization (adult personalities kept healthy)  Nuclear family best equipped to handle industrial society

7 Theoretical Perspectives on the Family Feminist Approaches –Challenge the vision of family as harmonious and egalitarian –Three main themes: Domestic division of labor Unequal power relationships Caring activities

8 Fig. 15.3

9 The Family in History The Development of Family Life –Three phases in development of family –From 1500s to early 1600s Nuclear family with deep ties to other kin, community Family not major focus of emotional attachment Choice in marriage up to interests of parents, kin, community

10 The Family in History The Development of Family Life (cont) –Early 1600s to early 1700s Nuclear family became more distinct from community Growing stress on marital and parental love Authority of father increased

11 The Family in History The Development of Family Life (cont) –Mid-1700s to Mid-1900s Affective individualism—marriage partners chosen based on love Family tied by close emotional bonds Domestic privacy Preoccupation with childrearing

12 Changes in Family Patterns Worldwide Directions of Change –Most important changes occurring worldwide: Clans, kin groups declining in influence Trend toward free choice of spouse Rights of women more widely recognized Kin marriages are less common Higher levels of sexual freedom Extending children’s rights

13 Marriage and the Family in the United States Directions of Change (cont) –Major changes in family life in the United States post—World War II Higher percentage of working women Rising divorce rates Greater rates of single-parent households and stepfamilies Cohabitation is increasingly common

14 Fig. 15.2

15 Marriage and the Family in the United States Race, Ethnicity, and the American Family –Asian-American families Characterized by dependence on extended family High median family income Lowest fertility rates Low divorce rates –Native American families Kinship ties are very important Highest rates of intermarriage High fertility rates High divorce rates

16 Marriage and the Family in the United States Race, Ethnicity, and the American Family (cont) –Latino families Diverse family patterns Mexican American families live in multigenerational homes and have high birthrates; half of women work out of necessity Puerto Ricans are most economically disadvantaged; have high birthrates and cohabitation rates Cubans are most prosperous; lower levels of fertility

17 Marriage and the Family in the United States Race, Ethnicity, and the American Family (cont) –African American families History of slavery and discrimination has contributed to higher rates of childbearing outside of marriage, lower rates of marriage, and female- headed families Adapted to poverty by forming large, complex support networks

18 Fig. 15.4

19 Marriage and the Family in the United States Nonmarital Childbearing –Number of children born out of wedlock is increasing among the poor of all races Why do women have children out of wedlock?  Stop using contraception  Young people in poor communities feel confident about their ability to raise children because they helped raise other children in their family  The poor place extraordinarily high value on children  Women are setting bar higher for marriage

20 Fig. 15.5

21 Fig. 15.6

22 Marriage and the Family in the United States Divorce –Why has divorce become more common? Changes in law have made it easier Marriage is no longer about perpetuating property and status Economic independence of women Growing tendency to evaluate marriage in terms of personal satisfaction

23 The Dark Side of the Family Family Life Is Not Always Harmonious –The “dark side” of the family includes abuse and family violence –No social class is immune to spousal abuse, but it is more common among low-income couples

24 Alternative Forms of Marriage and the Family Alternative Families Cohabitation and homosexuality have become more common recently Alternative forms of social and sexual relationships will flourish further But marriage and family remain firmly established institutions

25 Fig. 15.7

26 Review Questions 1. The nuclear family consists of __________. a)two adults living together in a household with their biological or adopted children b)a single generation in a familial network c)parents and stepparents and their biological, adopted, and stepchildren, who may or may not all live together all or part of the time d)whatever family members—parents, children, grandparents, cousins—regularly live together in the same household

27 Review Questions 2. The notion that the nuclear family fulfills specialized roles in modern societies and helps perpetuate social order is associated with the ________ approach to sociology. a)symbolic interactionist b)micro-level c)functionalist d)postmodern

28 Review Questions 3. Which of the following is a characteristic of the modern or post-industrial family? a)Dependence on kinship networks b)Marriage based on personal choice c)Decreased emphasis on child rearing d)Blurring of the boundaries between home and work life

29 Review Questions 4. Why has there been an increase in the age at which people get married for the first time? a)As women gain greater economic independence, they are less inclined to view marriage as a necessary way to guarantee their financial security. b)More couples are choosing cohabitation over marriage. c)As more and more women and men attend college, they wait longer to get married. d)All of the above

30 Review Questions 5. How have black women who are single parents adapted to create a stable family situation for their children in the absence of a father? a)Black women who are single parents often work two jobs in order to provide their families with financial stability and not depend on welfare. b)Black single mothers often rely on their fathers or another male relative to serve as a role model and nurturing male presence for their children. c)Many black women who are single parents move in with other single mothers in order to combine their resources and create a more stable home environment. d)Many black single mothers form a close and supportive network of extended family members and even friends whom they can rely on to help with child care and other family responsibilities.

31 Review Questions 6. Why has divorce become more common in the United States? a)People do not value the institution of marriage as highly as they did in the past. b)The pressure of balancing work, child-rearing, community activities, and other family responsibilities overwhelms many people, and increasingly divorce is seen as a way to reduce some of these pressures. c)There is a growing tendency to evaluate marriage in terms of personal satisfaction, and people are less willing than in the past to stay in a marriage that is not rewarding. d)As average incomes have risen significantly in the past thirty years, people are less compelled to stay together for financial reasons.

32 Review Questions 7. There is a high correlation between _________ and indicators of poverty and social deprivation. a)multiple births before the age of 25 b)rates of birth outside marriage c)divorce rates d)All of the above


Download ppt "Chapter 15 Families and Intimate Relationships Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google