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1. RIDING FOR FREEDOM  Civil rights activists ride buses across the South (Washington D.C. to New Orleans)  CORE in 1961 tests Supreme Court decisions.

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Presentation on theme: "1. RIDING FOR FREEDOM  Civil rights activists ride buses across the South (Washington D.C. to New Orleans)  CORE in 1961 tests Supreme Court decisions."— Presentation transcript:

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2 RIDING FOR FREEDOM  Civil rights activists ride buses across the South (Washington D.C. to New Orleans)  CORE in 1961 tests Supreme Court decisions banning segregation on interstate bus routes  They wanted a violent reaction from white southerners– why?  Beaten in Alabama by white mobs and by cops in Birmingham  Attorney General, Robert Kennedy, makes bus drivers continue driving  Pres. Kenney sends 400 U.S. marshals to protect the riders 2

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4 INTEGRATION OF SOUTHERN SCHOOLS  James Meredith is accepted to Uni. Of Mississippi (1962)  Gov. Ross Barnett refuses to let him register  Pres. Kennedy sends federal marshals  Riots break out  Federal officers had to accompany him to class 4

5 Birmingham, Alabama  “Bombingham”  Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and MLK Jr. are invited to help desegregate the city  King is arrested during a demonstration on April, 1963 5

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7 How did King feel about white religious leaders who felt he was pushing too fast? 7

8 Birmingham, Alabama  King gets out of jail after two weeks  Helps plan demonstrations  African-American children march  2,000 black kids are shown on t.v. being beaten, attacked by dogs, sprayed by fire houses  Pres. Kennedy demands Congress pass a civil rights bill 8

9 Questions  1. What did the freedom riders hope to achieve?  2. What events led to desegregation in Birmingham?  3. Why do you think many white southerners used violent means to oppose (fight) the civil rights movement? 9

10 5/2/14 – Partner Assignment 1. How have civil rights advocates been trying to desegregate the South? 10

11  2. How were African Americans negatively impacted by segregated education? 11

12  3. How did violence used by white southerners help the Civil Rights Movement? 12

13  4. How do you think white Americans can help in the Civil Rights Movement? 13

14  5. How were African Americans prevented from voting and why is it important for southern blacks to have voting power? 14

15 5/5/14 – Partner Assignment  1. Select a Civil Rights topic  2. One partner works on image/visual – words, pictures, cartoon, etc.  3. Other partner writes a two paragraph (4-5 sentences for each paragraph) description of the event.  Make sure to include date, where it took place, significance, who participated, why the person was important, how the individual contributed to the Civil Rights Movement, etc.  Use pages 700-716 and “Eyes on the Prize” handouts  Topics  Plessy v. Ferguson  Thurgood Marshall  Brown v. Board of Education  “Little Rock Nine”  Montgomery Bus Boycott  “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”  SNCC  SCLC  CORE  Freedom Rides  James Meredith  March on Washington  Civil Rights Act of 1964  Freedom Summer  Selma Campaign  Voting Rights Act of 1965 15

16 Journal  “White folks respect us more when they find out we mean business. When they only listen to our speeches or read our writings –if they ever do – they think we are just blowing off steam. But when rioters break the plate of glass windows of their stores, they know the steam has some force behind it.” - Langston Hughes  Do you think violent tactics will accomplish more than the non- violent tactics of MLK and the SCLC? 16

17 Section 3: Changes in the Movement  1965 the movement goes to the North and Civil Rights groups drift apart 17

18 Northern Segregation  De facto segregation – by practice and custom  De jure segregation – by law  Migration of African Americans during WII leads to “white flight” and the deterioration of black neighborhoods  MLK’s campaign against police brutality in Chicago fails 18

19 Urban Violence  Harlem, NYC – July 1964  Watts, CA – August 1964  1967 – race riots in 100 different cities  “Why would blacks turn to violence after winning so many victories in the South?” 19

20 What was the goal of LBJ’s Great Society? 20

21  LBJ’s Great Society – federal money to help poor Americans – goes to Vietnam 21

22 New Leaders  Tell blacks to take control of their communities, livelihoods, and culture  “If you think we are here to tell you to love the white man, you have come to the wrong place.” – Malcolm X 22

23 Malcolm X  Born Malcolm Little  Goes to jail at 20  Studies teachings of Elijah Muhammad = head of the Nation of Islam  Changes “slave name” to X  Blacks should separate from white society  Appeals to many African Americans and their growing sense of pride 23

24  “Concerning nonviolence: it is criminal to teach a man not to defend himself when he is the constant victim of brutal attacks. It is legal and lawful to own a shotgun or rifle. We believe in obeying the law… [T]he time has come for the American Negro to fight back in self-defense whenever and wherever he is being unjustly and unlawfully attacked.” – Malcolm X 24

25 Malcolm X  1964 - Breaks with Elijah Muhammad and forms another Muslim organization  Embraces racial equality after coming back from pilgrimage to Mecca  “Well, if you and I don’t use the ballot, we’re going to be forced to use the bullet. So let us try the ballot.”  1965 – assassinated while giving a speech in Harlem 25

26 Black Power  Stokely Carmichael of SNCC joins MLK Jr. in continuing James Meredith’s walk against racism after he is shot by a white racist  Black Power = “call for black people to define their own goals and to lead their own organizations”  Black Panthers form in Oakland, CA – 1966  Led by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale  To fight police brutality in the ghetto  Advocate self-sufficiency and self defense for African Americans  Established day cares, free breakfast programs 26

27 1968  King is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee  Riots in more than 100 cities 27

28 What the Civil Rights Movement Accomplished  Ended de jure segregation -> legal protection for the civil rights of all Americans  Civil Rights Act of 1968 -> ends discrimination in housing  School desegregation -> more black students graduate from high school -> and college -> better jobs  More black pride  More black movie stars  100 blacks in political positions in 1965 -> 7,000 in 1992 28

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