3TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTION Employ Company Organic Weapons Systems.CONDITIONS Given a classroom, participation in learning and a practical periods of instructions.STANDARD Correctly perform task standards IAW ARTEP 7-8MTP in order to perform an overwatch and/or a support by fire during the TEWT.
5INTRODUCTION “IF ANY SINGLE EVENT CAN BE SAID TO HAVE TRANSFORMED THE HISTORY OF WARFARE,IT WAS THE PERFECTION OF THE TRUE AUTOMATICMACHINE-GUN BY HIRAM MAXIM IN 1885.“OF ALL THE HIDEOUS WEAPONS OF WAR PRODUCEDIN THE 20th CENTURY, NONE HAS EXTRACTEDA MORE DREADFUL TOLL OF HUMAN LIFE THAN THEMACHINE GUN”.
6INTRODUCTIONIn 1881 Maxim, visited the Paris Electrical Exhibition. There he met a man who told him:"If you wanted to make a lot of money, invent something that will enable these Europeans to cut each other's throats with greater facility." Over the next few years Maxim worked on producing an effective machine-gun. In 1885 he demonstrated the world's first automatic portable machine-gun to the British Army. Maxim used the energy of each bullet's recoil force to eject the spent cartridge and insert the next bullet. The Maxim Machine-Gun would therefore fire until the entire belt of bullets was used up. Trials showed that the machine-gun could fire 500 rounds per minute and therefore had the firepower of about 100 rifles.
7INTRODUCTION“THE MACHINE GUN WILL NEVER REPLACE THE HORSE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF WAR”. SIR DOUGLAS HAIG, COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF BRITISH EXPEDITIONARY FORCES DECEMBER 1915
8INTRODUCTIONWORLD WAR 1 01 JULY 1916 THE SOMME ON THE FIRST DAY OF THE ALLIED SOMME OFFENSIVE 19,000 BRITISH AND COMMONWEALTH SOLDIERS WERE KILLED, AND A FURTHER 38,000 WOUNDED BY GERMAN MACHINE GUN FIRE ALONE.
9THE SOMME INTRODUCTION THE BRITISH III CORPS LOST 80% OF ITS EFFECTIVE STRENGTH AS IT ADVANCED ABREAST OF THEBAPAUME ROAD, BETWEEN THETWIN VILLAGES OF LA BOISELLE AND OVILLERS,VIRTUALLY ALL OF THEM CUT DOWNBY SUSTAINED MACHINE-GUN FIRE.
10World War 1 INTRODUCTION THE WAR KILLED AT THE VERY LEAST 9 MILLION PEOPLE, THE VAST MAJORITY OF THEM ON THE BATTLEFIELD ITSELF, AND WOUNDED A FURTHER 12.5 MILLION: A TOTAL OF 22 MILLION CASUALTIES.EVEN AT A CONSERVATIVE ESTIMATE, 25% OF THESE CASUALTIES WERE DUE TO MACHINE-GUN FIRE, GIVING A TOTAL OF 5.5 MILLION CASUALTIES.
11Modern Day INTRODUCTION AAR from action in Somalia in 1993 verified that the 7.62mm machinegun is still the Dismounted Infantry Platoon’s most lethal weapon systemThe bulk of an Dismounted Infantry Platoon’s organic firepower is provided by the 7.62mm Machinegun, especially in the COE of today (MOUT, Close Combat, Mountain).
12ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTION Describe the Considerations for Machinegun Fire.CONDITIONS Given a classroom, participation in learning and a practical periods of instructions.STANDARD Correctly perform task standards IAW ARTEP 7-8MTP in order to perform an overwatch and/or a support by fire during the TEWT.
13Squad Automatic Weapon GENERAL DATAM249 SAW 5.56mmSquad Automatic WeaponLight Machinegun
14GENERAL DATA – M249 CALIBER: 5.56mm MAXIMUM RANGE: 3600 m MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE:POINT TARGETS 600 mAREA TARGETS 800 mSUPPRESSION mRATES OF FIRE:SUSTAINED: 85 rpmRAPID: rpmCYCLIC: 850 rpmNO NOTES REQUIRED
20GENERAL DATA – M2HB CALIBER: .50 cal (12.7mm) MAXIMUM RANGE: m (4.22 miles)MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE:POINT TARGETS: m (Single Shot)AREA TARGETS: mRATES OF FIRE:SINGLE SHOT or CYCLIC: rpmTYPES OF AMMO:BALL INCENDIARYTRACER AP (ARMOR PIERCING)DUMMY API (ARMOR PIERCING INCENDIARY)BLANK APIT (ARMOR PIERCING INCENDIARY TRACER)NO NOTES REQUIRED
22ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTION Describe & understand Machinegun Terminology.CONDITIONS Given a classroom, participation in learning and a practical periods of instructions.STANDARD Correctly perform task standards IAW ARTEP 7-8MTP in order to perform an over-watch /support by fire during the TEWT or FTX week of training.
24Machinegun Terminology LINE OF SIGHTBURST OF FIRETRAJECTORYMAXIMUM ORDINATECONE OF FIREBEATEN ZONEDANGEROUS SPACEDANGEROUS ZONEDEAD SPACELINE OF SIGHT. Line of sight is an imaginary line drawn from the firer’s eye through the sights to the point of aim.LINE OF FIRE. Line of fire is the direction of the target from the gun.BURST OF FIRE. A burst of fire is a number of successive rounds fired with the same elevation and point of aim when the trigger is held to the rear. (The number of rounds in a burst can vary depending on the type of fire employed).TRAJECTORY. Trajectory is the curved path a round takes during its flight. The trajectory of a round is affected by air resistance and gravity.MAXIMUM ORDINATE. The Maximum Ordinate is the highest point above the line of sight to which a projectile rises during its flight. The maximum ordinate occurs approximately 2/3 of the way along the trajectory of the projectile. As the range increases so does the height of the maximum ordinate.CONE OF FIRE. The group of trajectories resulting from a burst of fire is termed the cone of fire. As the burst of fire strikes a vertical target, the rounds will form a pattern, oval in shape, with the density of shots decreasing towards the edges.BEATEN ZONE. The pattern formed when the cone of fire strikes the ground is termed the beaten zone. It is oval or cigar shaped and the density of rounds decreases towards the edges. Because of dispersion only that part of the beaten zone in which 85% of the rounds fall is considered the effective beaten zone).DANGEROUS SPACE Dangerous space occurs between the muzzle of the machine gun and the point of first graze. The extent of dangerous space will depend on the following:(1) the range,(2) the height of the weapon above the target,(3) the height of the target engaged,(4) the shape of the ground, and(5) the flatness of the trajectory.DANGEROUS ZONE The dangerous zone is that area covered by the dangerous space and the beaten zone. For fire to be effective, the target must be included in the dangerous zone.DEAD SPACE Any fold or depression in the ground that prevents a target from being engaged from a fixed position is termed dead space.
25LINE OF SIGHT Machinegun Terminology AN IMAGINARY LINE, FROM THE FIRERS EYE,THROUGH THE SIGHTS, TO THE POINT OF AIM ON THE TARGET.
26BURST OF FIRE Machinegun Terminology A BURST OF FIRE IS A NUMBER OF SUCCESSIVE ROUNDS FIRED WITH THE SAME ELEVATION AND POINT OF AIM WHEN THE TRIGGER IS HELD TO THE REAR.THE NUMBER OF ROUNDS IN A BURST CAN VARY, DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF FIRE EMPLOYED.
27TRAJECTORY Machinegun Terminology TRAJECTORY IS THE CURVED PATH A ROUND TAKES DURING ITS FLIGHT. THE TRAJECTORY OF A ROUND IS AFFECTED BY AIR RESISTANCE AND GRAVITY.
28MAXIMUM ORDINATE Machinegun Terminology MAXIMUM ORDINATE IS THE HIGHEST POINT ABOVE THE LINE OF SIGHT TO WHICH A PROJECTILE RISES DURING ITS FLIGHT. THE MAXIMUM ORDINATE OCCURS APPROXIMATELY 2/3 OF THE WAY ALONG THE TRAJECTORY OF THE PROJECTILE.Example: AS THE RANGE INCREASES, SO DOES THE HEIGHT OF THE MAXIMUM ORDINATE.MAXIMUM ORDINATE
29CONE OF FIRE Machinegun Terminology THE GROUP OF TRAJECTORIES RESULTING FROM A BURST OF FIRE IS TERMED THE CONE OF FIRE. WHEN A BURST OF FIRE STRIKES A VERTICAL TARGET, THE ROUNDS WILL FORM A PATTERN, OVAL IN SHAPE, WITH THE DENSITY OF SHOTS DECREASING TOWARDS THE EDGES.CONE OF FIRE
30BEATEN ZONE Machinegun Terminology THE PATTERN FORMED WHEN THE CONE OF FIRE STRIKES THE GROUND IS TERMED THE BEATEN ZONE. IT IS OVAL OR CIGAR SHAPED AND THE DENSITY OF ROUNDS DECREASES TOWARDS THE EDGES. BECAUSE OF DISPERSION ONLY THAT PART OF THE BEATEN ZONE IN WHICH 85% OF THE ROUNDS FALL IS CONSIDERED THE EFFECTIVE BEATEN ZONE.BEATEN ZONE
32DANGEROUS SPACE Machinegun Terminology DANGEROUS SPACE OCCURS BETWEEN THE MUZZLE OF THE MACHINE GUN AND THE POINT WHERE THE LOWEST ROUND IN THE BEATEN ZONE STRIKES THE GROUND.
33DANGEROUS ZONE Machinegun Terminology THE DANGEROUS ZONE IS THAT AREA COVERED BY THE DANGEROUS SPACE AND THE BEATEN ZONE. FOR THE FIRE TO BE EFFECTIVE, THE TARGET MUST BE INCLUDED IN THE DANGEROUS ZONE.DANGEROUS ZONE
34ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTION Describe the Effects of Range & Ground on the Beaten Zone.CONDITIONS Given a classroom, participation in learning and a practical periods of instructions.STANDARD Correctly perform task standards IAW ARTEP 7-8MTP in order to perform an overwatch and/or a support by fire during the TEWT.
36THE RANGE ON THE BEATEN ZONE RANGE: 500m 1 X 110 m AS RANGE INCREASES…………………………………..M240BRANGE: 500m 1 X 110 mRANGE: 1000m 2 X 75 mRANGE: 1500m 3 X 55 mThe Effects Of Range On The Beaten Zone7. As range increases, the beaten zone becomes shorter and wider, due to the increased angle of descent at long ranges. The following are the dimensions of the beaten zones at various ranges:M60 M240BRange: 500m 1m wide x 87m long. Range: 500m 1m wide x 110m long1000m 2m wide x 79m long m 2m wide x 75m long1500m 3m wide x 71m long m 3m wide x 55m long2000m 4m wide x 62m long m 4m wide x 50m long8. A knowledge of the dimensions of the beaten zones at any range will assist you in the sighting and employment of your machine guns, especially in defense.RANGE: 2000m 4 X 50 m(IT Vol 4, Pam 7, M60, 1980, Australia & RAInf Corps Trg. Notes Vol 2 Pam 6, DFSW Pl. 1995, Australia)
38THE GROUND ON THE BEATEN ZONE RISING SLOPESTEEP HILLSIDEThe Effects Of Ground On The Beaten Zone9. Ground will have a marked effect on the length of the beaten zone. A cone of fire striking a steep hillside will cover a very small area of ground and produce a small beaten zone.The same cone of fire striking a more gentle slope will produce a slightly larger beaten zone. On level ground the beaten zone will be still larger. The largest beaten zone will result where the fall of ground conforms to the trajectory of the round.LEVEL GROUNDCONFORMING GROUND
40DEAD SPACE DEAD SPACE ANY FOLD OR DEPRESSION IN THE GROUND THAT PREVENTS A TARGET FROM BEING ENGAGEDFROM A FIXED POSITION IS TERMED DEAD SPACE.DEADSPACE
41FACTORS EFFECTING THE BURST OF FIRE The Gun & the AmmunitionThe FirerThe Clarity of the TargetAir Disturbances & WeatherFactors That Effect The Burst Of Fire5. When a burst is fired from a machine gun , no round follows the exact same path. The contributing factors that effect the flight of each round are:a. THE GUN Regardless of which firing position the gun is fired from, the gun will move while firing bursts. This is because the MG is fired from the open bolt position and when the trigger is squeezed the operating group moves forward with the top locking lug on the bolt stripping the round out of the link belt and forcing the round forward and down into the chamber. The bolt is then locked in the chamber by the clockwise rotation of the bolt. After the round is fired, expanding gasses are forced onto the gas piston to move the operating rod to the rear, at the same time the bolt unlocks from the chamber and is forced to the rear. This continual internal movement, will cause vibrations which cause each round to travel on a separate path.b. AMMUNITION Although modern day ammunition is very good, it does vary slightly in metal composition and actual make up. The condition in which the ammunition is in when it is fired EG:- wet, dirty, oily etc. will influence the flight of a round.c. THE FIRER The firer is influenced by the vibration of the gun, and is unable to maintain the same sight picture and firing position.d. AIR DISTURBANCES The round can pass through hot or cold air disturbances which will vary the flight paths of the rounds. Gusts of wind will also cause the round to travel on separate paths.e. CLARITY OF TARGET The firers sight picture will also differ if the target is obscured by smoke or dust. The differing sight picture when firing the gun will cause rounds to travel on varying paths.6. Even if the gun were placed in a weapon clamp and fired, due to some of the above factors the rounds would not follow the same path.
42TYPES OF FIRE CLASSES OF MG FIRE Machineguns produce 2 Classes of Fire with respect to the Ground:Grazing Fire or Plunging FireThe 2 factors that effectthe Class of Fire produced with respect tothe Ground are Range and Terrain.TYPES OF FIRETypes Of Fire10. Machine guns produce two types of fire. It is classed as either Grazing fire or Plunging fire. The two factors that effect the type of fire produced by a gun are Range and Ground.
43GRAZING FIRE Grazing fire is obtained when firing over level or uniformly sloping terrain, where the center of the cone of firedoes not rise more than 1 meter above the ground.This is approximately out to 600m. The dangerous zone, employing this type of fire, extends from the muzzle of the gunout to where the last round in the beaten zone strikes the ground.Types Of Fire10. Machine guns produce two types of fire. It is classed as either Grazing fire or Plunging fire. The two factors that effect the type of fire produced by a gun are Range and Ground.a. GRAZING FIRE Grazing fire is obtained when firing over flat ground, at ranges where the culminating point of the round does not rise above the height of a standing man (1.8m), this is approximately out to 600m. The dangerous zone, employing this type of fire, extends from the muzzle of the weapon out to where the last round in the beaten zone strikes the ground.b. PLUNGING FIRE Plunging fire is achieved when the dangerous zone is practically confined to the beaten zone. It is obtained when firing at very long ranges, from high ground into low ground or into abruptly rising ground.BEATEN ZONE
44PLUNGING FIRE IS ACHIEVED WHEN THE DANGEROUS ZONE IS PRACTICALLY CONFINED TO THE BEATEN ZONE. IT IS OBTAINED WHEN FIRING AT VERY LONG RANGES, FROM HIGH GROUND INTO LOW GROUND OR INTO ABRUPTLY RISING GROUND.BEATEN ZONECONE OF FIREDANGEROUSZONE
46CLASSES OF FIRE RESPECT TO TARGET FRONTAL FIREOccurs when the long axis of the beaten zone is perpendicular to the front of the target.a. ENFILADE FIRE Enfilade fire is the application of the long axis of the beaten zone to the long axis of the target.b. OBLIQUE FIRE Oblique fire is fire delivered at an angle, where the length of the beaten zone is applied to a proportion of the target.c. FRONTAL FIRE Frontal fire is fire delivered at right angles to the length of the target.
48Classes of Fire with Respect to the Target FLANKING FIRE:Fire that is delivered directly against the flank of the target.a. ENFILADE FIRE Enfilade fire is the application of the long axis of the beaten zone to the long axis of the target.b. OBLIQUE FIRE Oblique fire is fire delivered at an angle, where the length of the beaten zone is applied to a proportion of the target.c. FRONTAL FIRE Frontal fire is fire delivered at right angles to the length of the target.
50Classes of Fire with Respect to the Target OBLIQUE FIRE:When the long axis of the beaten zone is at an angle other than a right angle to the front of the target.a. ENFILADE FIRE Enfilade fire is the application of the long axis of the beaten zone to the long axis of the target.b. OBLIQUE FIRE Oblique fire is fire delivered at an angle, where the length of the beaten zone is applied to a proportion of the target.c. FRONTAL FIRE Frontal fire is fire delivered at right angles to the length of the target.
52Classes of Fire with Respect to the Target ENFILADE FIRE:When the long axis of the beaten zone coincides or nearly coincides with the long axis of the target. This type of fire is either frontal or flanking. It is the most desirable type of fire with respect to a target because it makes maximum use of the beaten zone.a. ENFILADE FIRE Enfilade fire is the application of the long axis of the beaten zone to the long axis of the target.b. OBLIQUE FIRE Oblique fire is fire delivered at an angle, where the length of the beaten zone is applied to a proportion of the target.c. FRONTAL FIRE Frontal fire is fire delivered at right angles to the length of the target.
55OBJECTIVES OF MG MARKSMANSHIP Obtain an accurate initial burstTraverse and search the Machinegun effectivelyObserve and adjust fireOperate with speedReference page 9-2 FM 23-67
56Classes of Fire With Respect to the Gun PLACEHOLDER:USE EXAMPLES OF FIRE WITH RESPECT TO GUN: CAN BLOWUP PICTURE ON PAGE 7-4 of FM or make slideClasses of Fire With Respect to the Gun
57TRAINING TTP FOR LEADERS Crew drills varied conditionsCross train machinegun skills, to include crew drills and range cardsStabilize your crews, don’t make the “new guy” the gunner.You the leader and crew must know FMTrain your MG crews and weapon squads to occupy Support By Fire positions both in and out of contact. Don’t just train for best case (deliberate occupation out of contact).
58TRAINING TTP FOR LEADERS Remember that the M249 is also a machinegun, and team leaders/squad leaders should be trained on their control and employment.
59CREW DRILLS Can be conducted in field, on ranges, or in garrison Conduct under progressively harder conditions (time, day/night, rotate positions, etc.)PRECISION IS NEVER SACRIFICED FOR SPEED, SPEED IS ACQUIRED AFTER PRECISION HAS BEEN OBTAINED
60AIDS FOR OBSERVING THE FALL OF SHOT GROUND: Rounds falling on dry, sandy, or rocky ground will give a good indication of strike.TRACER: Tracer can be observed at ranges up to 1100m in normal circumstances.CLIMATIC CONDITIONS: When the sun is low, it is easier to observe strike than when it is high.BATTLEFIELD CONDITIONS: The actions of the “enemy will often indicate whether the fire is effective”.15. To aid the gunner in determining the effectiveness of his fire, the following should be remembered:a. Tracer: Tracer can be observed at ranges up to 1100 metres in normal circumstances.b. Ground: Rounds falling on dry, sandy, or rocky ground will give a good indication of strike.c. Climatic Conditions When the sun is low it is easier to observe strike than when it is high, andd. Battlefield Conditions The actions of the enemy will often indicate whether the fire is effective.
61NOTES ON ZEROINGIF THE WEAPON IS NOT CORRECTLY ZEROED, IT IS INEFFECTIVE.BOTH THE GUNNER AND THE ASSISTANT GUNNER MUST ZERO THE WEAPON.THE SPARE BARREL MUST BE ZEROED, NOT JUST THE MAIN BARREL.THE WEAPON MUST BE ZEROED BEFORE ANY OPERATION, AFTER REPAIRS,WHEN GUNNERS CHANGE AND WHEN EVER THE ZERO IS IN DOUBTNOTES ON ZEROING: A. If the weapon is not correctly zeroed, it is ineffective.B. Both the gunner and the assistant gunner must zero the weapon.C. The spare barrel must be zeroed, not just the main barrel.D. The AG must keep a record of his zero corrections, Tie-on a dog tag attached to the bipod leg, IE- Right 2 clicks, Up 5 clicks (for both barrels).E. The weapon must be zeroed before any operation, after being repaired, when gunners change, and whenever the zero is in doubt.
63TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTION Employ Company Organic Weapons Systems.CONDITIONS Given a classroom, participation in learning and a practical periods of instructions.STANDARD Correctly perform task standards IAW ARTEP 7-8MTP in order to perform an overwatch and/or a support by fire during the TEWT.