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THE THEORY OF MACHINE GUN FIRE TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTIONEmploy Company Organic Weapons Systems. CONDITIONSGiven a classroom, participation in.

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Presentation on theme: "THE THEORY OF MACHINE GUN FIRE TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTIONEmploy Company Organic Weapons Systems. CONDITIONSGiven a classroom, participation in."— Presentation transcript:

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2 THE THEORY OF MACHINE GUN FIRE

3 TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTIONEmploy Company Organic Weapons Systems. CONDITIONSGiven a classroom, participation in learning and a practical periods of instructions. STANDARDCorrectly perform task standards IAW ARTEP 7-8MTP in order to perform an overwatch and/or a support by fire during the TEWT.

4 NONE LOW

5 INTRODUCTION “IF ANY SINGLE EVENT CAN BE SAID TO HAVE TRANSFORMED THE HISTORY OF WARFARE, IT WAS THE PERFECTION OF THE TRUE AUTOMATIC MACHINE-GUN BY HIRAM MAXIM IN “OF ALL THE HIDEOUS WEAPONS OF WAR PRODUCED IN THE 20 th CENTURY, NONE HAS EXTRACTED A MORE DREADFUL TOLL OF HUMAN LIFE THAN THE MACHINE GUN”.

6 INTRODUCTION In 1881 Maxim, visited the Paris Electrical Exhibition. There he met a man who told him: "If you wanted to make a lot of money, invent something that will enable these Europeans to cut each other's throats with greater facility." Over the next few years Maxim worked on producing an effective machine-gun. In 1885 he demonstrated the world's first automatic portable machine-gun to the British Army. Maxim used the energy of each bullet's recoil force to eject the spent cartridge and insert the next bullet. The Maxim Machine-Gun would therefore fire until the entire belt of bullets was used up. Trials showed that the machine-gun could fire 500 rounds per minute and therefore had the firepower of about 100 rifles. British ArmyMaxim Machine-Gun

7 “THE MACHINE GUN WILL NEVER REPLACE THE HORSE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF WAR”. SIR DOUGLAS HAIG, COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF BRITISH EXPEDITIONARY FORCES DECEMBER 1915 INTRODUCTION

8 WORLD WAR 1 01 JULY 1916 THE SOMME ON THE FIRST DAY OF THE ALLIED SOMME OFFENSIVE 19,000 BRITISH AND COMMONWEALTH SOLDIERS WERE KILLED, AND A FURTHER 38,000 WOUNDED BY GERMAN MACHINE GUN FIRE ALONE. INTRODUCTION

9 THE SOMME THE BRITISH III CORPS LOST 80% OF ITS EFFECTIVE STRENGTH AS IT ADVANCED ABREAST OF THE BAPAUME ROAD, BETWEEN THE TWIN VILLAGES OF LA BOISELLE AND OVILLERS, VIRTUALLY ALL OF THEM CUT DOWN BY SUSTAINED MACHINE-GUN FIRE. INTRODUCTION

10 World War 1 THE WAR KILLED AT THE VERY LEAST 9 MILLION PEOPLE, THE VAST MAJORITY OF THEM ON THE BATTLEFIELD ITSELF, AND WOUNDED A FURTHER 12.5 MILLION: A TOTAL OF 22 MILLION CASUALTIES. EVEN AT A CONSERVATIVE ESTIMATE, 25% OF THESE CASUALTIES WERE DUE TO MACHINE-GUN FIRE, GIVING A TOTAL OF 5.5 MILLION CASUALTIES. INTRODUCTION

11 Modern Day AAR from action in Somalia in 1993 verified that the 7.62mm machinegun is still the Dismounted Infantry Platoon’s most lethal weapon system The bulk of an Dismounted Infantry Platoon’s organic firepower is provided by the 7.62mm Machinegun, especially in the COE of today (MOUT, Close Combat, Mountain). INTRODUCTION

12 ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTIONDescribe the Considerations for Machinegun Fire. CONDITIONSGiven a classroom, participation in learning and a practical periods of instructions. STANDARDCorrectly perform task standards IAW ARTEP 7-8MTP in order to perform an overwatch and/or a support by fire during the TEWT.

13 GENERAL DATA M249 SAW 5.56mm Squad Automatic Weapon Light Machinegun

14 GENERAL DATA – M249 CALIBER:5.56mm MAXIMUM RANGE:3600 m MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE: POINT TARGETS600 m AREA TARGETS800 m SUPPRESSION1000 m RATES OF FIRE: SUSTAINED:85 rpm RAPID:200 rpm CYCLIC:850 rpm

15 GENERAL DATA M mm Medium Machinegun

16 GENERAL DATA – M60 CALIBER:7.62mm MAXIMUM RANGE:3725 m MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE:1,000m GRAZING FIRE:600m TRACER BURN OUT:900m RATES OF FIRE: SUSTAINED:100 rpm RAPID:200 rpm CYCLIC:550 rpm

17 GENERAL DATA M240B 7.62mm Medium Machinegun

18 GENERAL DATA – M240B CALIBER:7.62mm MAXIMUM RANGE:3725 m MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE:1,000m GRAZING FIRE:600m TRACER BURN OUT:900m RATES OF FIRE: SUSTAINED:100 rpm RAPID:200 rpm CYCLIC: rpm

19 GENERAL DATA M2HB.50 Cal Browning Heavy Machinegun

20 GENERAL DATA – M2HB CALIBER:.50 cal (12.7mm) MAXIMUM RANGE:6764 m (4.22 miles) MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE: POINT TARGETS:1500 m (Single Shot) AREA TARGETS:1830 m RATES OF FIRE: SINGLE SHOT or CYCLIC: rpm TYPES OF AMMO: BALL INCENDIARY TRACER AP (ARMOR PIERCING) DUMMY API (ARMOR PIERCING INCENDIARY) BLANK APIT (ARMOR PIERCING INCENDIARY TRACER)

21 Browning.50 M2HB (Ma Deuce)

22 ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTIONDescribe & understand Machinegun Terminology. CONDITIONSGiven a classroom, participation in learning and a practical periods of instructions. STANDARDCorrectly perform task standards IAW ARTEP 7-8MTP in order to perform an over-watch /support by fire during the TEWT or FTX week of training.

23 MACHINEGUN TERMINOLOGY

24 Machinegun Terminology  LINE OF SIGHT  BURST OF FIRE  TRAJECTORY  MAXIMUM ORDINATE  CONE OF FIRE  BEATEN ZONE  DANGEROUS SPACE  DANGEROUS ZONE  DEAD SPACE

25 LINE OF SIGHT Machinegun Terminology AN IMAGINARY LINE, FROM THE FIRERS EYE, THROUGH THE SIGHTS, TO THE POINT OF AIM ON THE TARGET.

26 A BURST OF FIRE IS A NUMBER OF SUCCESSIVE ROUNDS FIRED WITH THE SAME ELEVATION AND POINT OF AIM WHEN THE TRIGGER IS HELD TO THE REAR. THE NUMBER OF ROUNDS IN A BURST CAN VARY, DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF FIRE EMPLOYED. Machinegun Terminology BURST OF FIRE

27 TRAJECTORY IS THE CURVED PATH A ROUND TAKES DURING ITS FLIGHT. THE TRAJECTORY OF A ROUND IS AFFECTED BY AIR RESISTANCE AND GRAVITY. Machinegun Terminology TRAJECTORY

28 MAXIMUM ORDINATE IS THE HIGHEST POINT ABOVE THE LINE OF SIGHT TO WHICH A PROJECTILE RISES DURING ITS FLIGHT. THE MAXIMUM ORDINATE OCCURS APPROXIMATELY 2/3 OF THE WAY ALONG THE TRAJECTORY OF THE PROJECTILE. Example: AS THE RANGE INCREASES, SO DOES THE HEIGHT OF THE MAXIMUM ORDINATE. MAXIMUM ORDINATE Machinegun Terminology MAXIMUM ORDINATE

29 THE GROUP OF TRAJECTORIES RESULTING FROM A BURST OF FIRE IS TERMED THE CONE OF FIRE. WHEN A BURST OF FIRE STRIKES A VERTICAL TARGET, THE ROUNDS WILL FORM A PATTERN, OVAL IN SHAPE, WITH THE DENSITY OF SHOTS DECREASING TOWARDS THE EDGES. CONE OF FIRE Machinegun Terminology CONE OF FIRE

30 THE PATTERN FORMED WHEN THE CONE OF FIRE STRIKES THE GROUND IS TERMED THE BEATEN ZONE. IT IS OVAL OR CIGAR SHAPED AND THE DENSITY OF ROUNDS DECREASES TOWARDS THE EDGES. BECAUSE OF DISPERSION ONLY THAT PART OF THE BEATEN ZONE IN WHICH 85% OF THE ROUNDS FALL IS CONSIDERED THE EFFECTIVE BEATEN ZONE. BEATEN ZONE Machinegun Terminology BEATEN ZONE

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32 DANGEROUS SPACE OCCURS BETWEEN THE MUZZLE OF THE MACHINE GUN AND THE POINT WHERE THE LOWEST ROUND IN THE BEATEN ZONE STRIKES THE GROUND. Machinegun Terminology DANGEROUS SPACE

33 THE DANGEROUS ZONE IS THAT AREA COVERED BY THE DANGEROUS SPACE AND THE BEATEN ZONE. FOR THE FIRE TO BE EFFECTIVE, THE TARGET MUST BE INCLUDED IN THE DANGEROUS ZONE. DANGEROUS ZONE Machinegun Terminology DANGEROUS ZONE

34 ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTIONDescribe the Effects of Range & Ground on the Beaten Zone. CONDITIONSGiven a classroom, participation in learning and a practical periods of instructions. STANDARDCorrectly perform task standards IAW ARTEP 7-8MTP in order to perform an overwatch and/or a support by fire during the TEWT.

35 The effects of Range on the Beaten Zone

36 THE RANGE ON THE BEATEN ZONE AS RANGE INCREASES………………………………….. M240B RANGE: 500m1 X 110 m RANGE: 1000m2 X 75 m RANGE: 1500m3 X 55 m RANGE: 2000m4 X 50 m (IT Vol 4, Pam 7, M60, 1980, Australia & RAInf Corps Trg. Notes Vol 2 Pam 6, DFSW Pl. 1995, Australia)

37 The effects of the Ground on the Beaten Zone

38 LEVEL GROUND THE GROUND ON THE BEATEN ZONE RISING SLOPE STEEP HILLSIDE CONFORMING GROUND

39 DEAD SPACE

40 ANY FOLD OR DEPRESSION IN THE GROUND THAT PREVENTS A TARGET FROM BEING ENGAGED FROM A FIXED POSITION IS TERMED DEAD SPACE. DEAD SPACE

41 FACTORS EFFECTING THE BURST OF FIRE  The Gun & the Ammunition  The Firer  The Clarity of the Target  Air Disturbances & Weather

42 CLASSES OF MG FIRE Machineguns produce 2 Classes of Fire with respect to the Ground: Grazing Fire or Plunging Fire The 2 factors that effect the Class of Fire produced with respect to the Ground are Range and Terrain. TYPES OF FIRE

43 GRAZING FIRE Grazing fire is obtained when firing over level or uniformly sloping terrain, where the center of the cone of fire does not rise more than 1 meter above the ground. This is approximately out to 600m. The dangerous zone, employing this type of fire, extends from the muzzle of the gun out to where the last round in the beaten zone strikes the ground. BEATEN ZONE

44 PLUNGING FIRE PLUNGING FIRE IS ACHIEVED WHEN THE DANGEROUS ZONE IS PRACTICALLY CONFINED TO THE BEATEN ZONE. IT IS OBTAINED WHEN FIRING AT VERY LONG RANGES, FROM HIGH GROUND INTO LOW GROUND OR INTO ABRUPTLY RISING GROUND. BEATEN ZONE CONE OF FIRE DANGEROUS ZONE

45 Classes of Fire with Respect to the Target

46 CLASSES OF FIRE RESPECT TO TARGET FRONTAL FIRE Occurs when the long axis of the beaten zone is perpendicular to the front of the target.

47 FRONTAL FIRE

48 Classes of Fire with Respect to the Target FLANKING FIRE: Fire that is delivered directly against the flank of the target.

49 FLANKING FIRE

50 OBLIQUE FIRE: When the long axis of the beaten zone is at an angle other than a right angle to the front of the target. Classes of Fire with Respect to the Target

51 OBLIQUE FIRE

52 ENFILADE FIRE: When the long axis of the beaten zone coincides or nearly coincides with the long axis of the target. This type of fire is either frontal or flanking. It is the most desirable type of fire with respect to a target because it makes maximum use of the beaten zone. Classes of Fire with Respect to the Target

53 ENFILADE FIRE FRONTAL FLANKING

54 TRAINING NOTES

55 OBJECTIVES OF MG MARKSMANSHIP Obtain an accurate initial burst Traverse and search the Machinegun effectively Observe and adjust fire Operate with speed Reference page 9-2 FM 23-67

56 PLACEHOLDER: USE EXAMPLES OF FIRE WITH RESPECT TO GUN: CAN BLOWUP PICTURE ON PAGE 7-4 of FM or make slide Classes of Fire With Respect to the Gun

57 TRAINING TTP FOR LEADERS Crew drills varied conditions Cross train machinegun skills, to include crew drills and range cards Stabilize your crews, don’t make the “new guy” the gunner. You the leader and crew must know FM Train your MG crews and weapon squads to occupy Support By Fire positions both in and out of contact. Don’t just train for best case (deliberate occupation out of contact).

58 Remember that the M249 is also a machinegun, and team leaders/squad leaders should be trained on their control and employment. TRAINING TTP FOR LEADERS

59 CREW DRILLS Can be conducted in field, on ranges, or in garrison Conduct under progressively harder conditions (time, day/night, rotate positions, etc.) PRECISION IS NEVER SACRIFICED FOR SPEED, SPEED IS ACQUIRED AFTER PRECISION HAS BEEN OBTAINED

60 AIDS FOR OBSERVING THE FALL OF SHOT GROUND:Rounds falling on dry, sandy, or rocky ground will give a good indication of strike. TRACER:Tracer can be observed at ranges up to 1100m in normal circumstances. CLIMATIC CONDITIONS:When the sun is low, it is easier to observe strike than when it is high. BATTLEFIELD CONDITIONS: The actions of the “enemy will often indicate whether the fire is effective”.

61 NOTES ON ZEROING IF THE WEAPON IS NOT CORRECTLY ZEROED, IT IS INEFFECTIVE. BOTH THE GUNNER AND THE ASSISTANT GUNNER MUST ZERO THE WEAPON. THE SPARE BARREL MUST BE ZEROED, NOT JUST THE MAIN BARREL. THE WEAPON MUST BE ZEROED BEFORE ANY OPERATION, AFTER REPAIRS,WHEN GUNNERS CHANGE AND WHEN EVER THE ZERO IS IN DOUBT

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63 TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTIONEmploy Company Organic Weapons Systems. CONDITIONSGiven a classroom, participation in learning and a practical periods of instructions. STANDARDCorrectly perform task standards IAW ARTEP 7-8MTP in order to perform an overwatch and/or a support by fire during the TEWT.

64 QUESTIONS?


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