Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Mapping Science: Lecture 1 What are maps? Cartographic basics A Brief History.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Mapping Science: Lecture 1 What are maps? Cartographic basics A Brief History."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Mapping Science: Lecture 1 What are maps? Cartographic basics A Brief History of Maps

2 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Maps as a Model of the Real World Abstraction Communication

3 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Map Abstraction Selection Classification Simplification Exaggeration Symbolization

4 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Map as Communication Goal is to capture the spatial character of particular area and help the user to understand the geographic relationships The principal task of cartography is to communicate environmental information. The task of the map designer is to enhance the map user's ability to retrieve information.

5 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Map as Communication Maps perform two important functions: Storage medium for information that humanity needs Provides a picture of the world to help understand spatial patterns, relationships, and environmental complexity

6 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Cartographic Basics Maps tell us: Where is it? What is it? (often) When is it? What is nearby? How far away? In which direction? How do I get there? What other things are there also? How might they be related?

7 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Understanding the Environment Represent real world features Tangible Intangible Simplified/Categorized

8 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Feature Types Discrete Distinct Homogeneous Dispersed/Discontinuous Continuous

9 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Feature Dimensionality 0-D Points 1-D Lines 2-D Areas 3-D Volume 4-D Time/Change

10 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Basic characteristics of all maps: Location Attribution Reduction of reality Scale Geometrical transformation/projection Abstractions of reality Symbolism Cartographic Basics

11 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Location and Attribution allow many types of relationships to be formed: Relationships among locations with no attributes – distance, bearing Relationship among various attributes at the same point Relationship among different locations of the same attribute Relationships among locations of combined/derived attributes of given distributions -- spatial distribution of per capita income vs. educational attainment Cartographic Basics

12 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Classification of maps: Classed by Scale Small scale Medium scale Large scale Classed by Function General reference maps Thematic/special purpose maps Charts Classed by Subject Matter Cadastral maps Plans Soil, vegetation, precipitation, etc. Cartographic Basics

13 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Mapping involves information transformations: Data collection Selection Classification Simplification Exaggeration Symbolization Use of map Cartographic Basics

14 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) pre 2000 B.C. Earliest direct evidence of mapping comes from the middle east. These ancient Babylonian clay tablets depict the earth as a flat circular disk. Ancient Chinese Maps In ancient times, Chinese cartography was more advanced than their contemporaries'. Their maps were accurate and detailed compared to other ancient maps. 200 B.C. The Greeks understood that the earth was a sphere. Eratosthenes accurately calculated the circumference of the earth using angle measures. A Brief History of Maps

15 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Clay tablet from Ga-Sur, ca. 2300 B.C.

16 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Town Plan from Catal Hyuk (6200 B.C.)

17 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Mesopotamian City Plan, Nippur 1500 BC

18 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Turin Papyrus ca. 1300 B.C.

19 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Babylonian clay tablet world map, ca. 600 B.C.

20 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Reconstruction of Herodotus World Map ca. 450 B.C.

21 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) The Babylonian cosmos

22 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) 150 A.D. Ptolemy defined in Geography the elements and form of scientific cartography. In spite of his errors (he maintained that the sun revolved around the earth, and calculated the earth as 3/4 its actual size), Ptolemy was far ahead of his time on how scientific research should be conducted. He proposed a system of projections and coordinate systems that are still used today Middle Ages European maps were more ecclesiastic than cartographic. Cosmas exemplified this concept, incorporating religious themes and references into many of his maps. In contrast, Arab maps advanced the earlier Greek practices. Al-Idrisi designed a still- famous world map. A Brief History of Maps (cont.)

23 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Reconstruction of Homer's view of the world

24 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading)

25 Reconstruction of the Orbis Terrarum (20 A.D.)

26 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Reconstruction of the world map according to Dionysius (124 A.D.)

27 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Ptolemaic World Map, 12th -13th century

28 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) A small section of Tabula Peutingeriana 350 A.D.

29 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Catalan Atlas (1375)

30 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Martin Behaim's Globe, 1492

31 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) 16th century Mercator created a map- the Mercator Projection that allowed mariners to sail to their destinations by following a fixed rule called a rhumb line. 17th century Newton postulated that, due to the centrifugal force of the spinning earth, strongest at its equator, the earth bulges at the equator and flattens at the poles. The earth is not a true sphere, but a spheroid. A Brief History of Maps (cont.)

32 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Cantino's world map, 1502

33 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Gerard Mercator's famous world map, 1569 (first known use of the "Mercator projection" on a world map)

34 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Europae Abraham Ortelius, 1564

35 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) World map, John Speed, 1627

36 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Nova Totius Americae Descripto, 1666

37 Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) 19th century Europeans implemented the metric system which introduced a simpler and more universal language for map scale. The Greenwich prime meridian was established 20th century Aerial photographs, computers, electronic distance-measuring instruments, inertial navigation systems, remote sensing, and applications of space science create new extensions of cartography's reach. The Internet makes that reach accessible to all of us. A Brief History of Maps (cont.)


Download ppt "Introduction to Mapping Sciences: Lecture #1 (Introduction and Map Reading) Mapping Science: Lecture 1 What are maps? Cartographic basics A Brief History."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google