2 Forms of representation Need for maps Basic characteristics of maps Purposes maps serve Categories of maps Emphasis on cartographic representation The scope of cartography Nature of Cartography
3 Forms of Representation Literacy - the use of written language Articulacy - the use of spoken language Numeracy - mathematics: a way of symbolisation Graphicacy - the use of graphics "A picture is worth of thousands of words"
Nature of Cartography6 HSI: Analytical Chart (1)
Nature of Cartography7 HSI: Analytical Chart (2)
Nature of Cartography8 Spatial Imagery Map - the graphic representation of the geographical setting. Cartography is the making and study of maps in all their aspects. Cartography is an efficient way of manipulating, analysing and expressing ideas, forms and relationships that occur in two- and three-dimensional space.
Nature of Cartography9 Need for Maps Reducing the spatial characteristics of a large area and putting it in map form to make it observable. A map is carefully designed instrument for recording, calculating, displaying, analysing and understanding the interrelation of things. Its most fundamental function is to bring the things into view.
Nature of Cartography10 Basic Characteristics of Maps Locations in two-dimensional space Attributes - qualities or magnitudes Examples: Relationships among locations, e.g. Distance Relationships among various attributes at one location, e.g. Temperature, rainfall and soil Relationships among the locations of the attributes of a given distribution, e.g. Rainfall Relationships among the locations of derived or combined attributes of given distributions, e.g. Relation of GDP and population
Nature of Cartography11 Basic Characteristics of Maps (Cont.) All geographical maps are reductions. Scale. All maps involve geometrical transformations. Map projection. All maps are abstractions of reality. All maps use signs to stand for elements of reality. Symbolism.
Nature of Cartography12 Purposes Maps Serve Store geographical information. Serve mobility and navigation needs. Analytical purposes, e.g. Measuring and computing. Summarise statistical data to assist forecasting and spotting trends. Visualise invisible. Stimulate spatial thinking.
Nature of Cartography13 Categories of Maps Classed by scale Small-scale map Large-scale map Classed by function General reference maps Thematic maps Charts Classed by subject matter
Nature of Cartography14 Emphasis on Cartographic Representation The principal task of cartography is to communicate environmental information. The emphasis on cartographic representation is map effectiveness in thought and communication. This is best achieved by treating the making and using of maps equally.
Nature of Cartography15 The Theme of Map Effectiveness Map Effectiveness Map Making Map Use SymbolisationSimplification Selection ClassificationExaggeration Analysis Interpretation Reading
Nature of Cartography16 Information Transformation Geographical Environment Recognised Geographical Information MAP Map Image Census Ground survey Remote sensing Compilation Selection Classification Simplification Exaggeration Symbolisation Reading Analysis Interpretation Transform 1Transform 2Transform 3
Nature of Cartography17 The Scope of Cartography Map Maker Map User DataMap
Nature of Cartography18 Processes in Cartography Collecting and selecting the data for mapping Manipulating and generalising the data, designing and constructing the map Reading or view the map Responding to or interpreting the information
Nature of Cartography19 A Cartographer Must... Be familiar with all mapping activities (geodesy, surveying, photogrammetry, remote sensing and GIS); and Know a lot about human thought and communication (cognitive science) and the disciplines associated with the environmental features being mapped.
Nature of Cartography20 Geographers Are the Primary Users of Maps Environmental Sciences Cognitive Sciences Mapping Sciences MAP