Presentation on theme: "Intro to Cartography -- What is cartography? -- Globes vs. Maps"— Presentation transcript:
1 Intro to Cartography -- What is cartography? -- Globes vs. Maps -- Map scales-- Map projections-- Map conventions-- Map types-- Maps through time-- Mapping today
2 What is cartography? Cartography is the art & science of mapmaking. Cartographers are specially-trained geographers.Maps are a geographer’s most important tool for thinking spatially (distribution and patterns).A map serves two purposes:A tool for storing reference materialA tool for communicating geographic information
3 Globes vs. MapsThe most accurate physical representation of the earth is a globe; still, even globes are inaccurate.So, why not use a globe if they are more accurate?
4 Map Scales Why draw at different scales? Different needs… Use:Accuracy:Scale shows the ratio of distance and area on the earth to the distance and area on the map.There is an inverse relationship between the ratio and the “size” of the scale.
5 Map ProjectionsAll maps are inaccurate in at least one way…they distort the earth (round to flat)There are four true measures, not all of which can be included in a single flat map.True distance (great circle)True direction (great circle)True shapeTrue area
6 Map ProjectionsDifferent methods of representing the round earth on a flat surface are called projections.The purpose of the map helps determine which projection to use.Examples:
7 Projection MethodMathematical formulas (algebraic, trigonometric) are used to plot the round earth on a piece of paperCartographers used math to do what a flashlight and clear globe would do
9 Peters Projection The “controversial” map… Some believe it is reduces inflated beliefs in western (Euro & American) superioritySome believe it doesn’t deserve that much credit—it’s just another projectionWest Wing
15 Physical MapsPhysical maps show one or more natural features, such as mountains, lakes, rivers, and climate.Relief maps show topographyTopography: different elevations on the earth’s surface (height above sea level, such as hills, valleys, mountains)
17 Political MapsPolitical maps show human-made political boundaries and features, including country borders, state or province borders, capitals, and cities.
18 Thematic MapsThematic maps are special-purpose maps that show one or more specific features, or themes.There are two types of thematic mapsQualitativeQuantitative
19 Qualitative MapsThese maps show some “quality” (feature, phenomena) of the earth or humansMINNESOTA LAND USE AND COVER 1990s CENSUS OF THE LAND
20 Quantitative MapsThese maps display “quantities” (numbers) in a visual form.
21 Maps Through TimeThe oldest known maps were made on clay tablets by the Babylonians (~2300 BC).Ancient Greeks and Romans made many advances in cartography (i.e., Ptolemy)In the Middle Ages (~1200s-1400s), maps often had religious themes; Arabs excelled in mapmaking.During the Renaissance, printing presses made maps widely available; maps often were based on exploration and used for navigation.
22 Modern CartographyMaps became more accurate in the 18th and 19th centuries as technologies improved.Today most all maps are made on computers that use GIS (Geographic Information Systems).Other technologies used in cartography are aerial photography, satellite imagery, and GPS.