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Intro to Cartography --What is cartography? -- Globes vs. Maps --Map scales --Map projections --Map conventions --Map types --Maps through time --Mapping.

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Presentation on theme: "Intro to Cartography --What is cartography? -- Globes vs. Maps --Map scales --Map projections --Map conventions --Map types --Maps through time --Mapping."— Presentation transcript:

1 Intro to Cartography --What is cartography? -- Globes vs. Maps --Map scales --Map projections --Map conventions --Map types --Maps through time --Mapping today

2 What is cartography? Cartography is the art & science of mapmaking. Cartographers are specially-trained geographers. Maps are a geographers most important tool for thinking spatially (distribution and patterns). A map serves two purposes: 1. A tool for storing reference material 2. A tool for communicating geographic information

3 Globes vs. Maps The most accurate physical representation of the earth is a globe; still, even globes are inaccurate. So, why not use a globe if they are more accurate?

4 Map Scales Why draw at different scales? Different needs… 1. Use: 2. Accuracy: Scale shows the ratio of distance and area on the earth to the distance and area on the map. There is an inverse relationship between the ratio and the size of the scale.

5 Map Projections All maps are inaccurate in at least one way…they distort the earth All maps are inaccurate in at least one way…they distort the earth (round to flat) There are four true measures, not all of which can be included in a single flat map. 1. True distance (great circle) 2. True direction (great circle) 3. True shape 4. True area

6 Map Projections Different methods of representing the round earth on a flat surface are called projections. The purpose of the map helps determine which projection to use. Examples:

7 Projection Method Mathematical formulas (algebraic, trigonometric) are used to plot the round earth on a piece of paper Mathematical formulas (algebraic, trigonometric) are used to plot the round earth on a piece of paper Cartographers used math to do what a flashlight and clear globe would do Cartographers used math to do what a flashlight and clear globe would do

8 Mercator Projection

9 Peters Projection The controversial map… The controversial map… Some believe it is reduces inflated beliefs in western (Euro & American) superiority Some believe it is reduces inflated beliefs in western (Euro & American) superiority Some believe it doesnt deserve that much creditits just another projection Some believe it doesnt deserve that much creditits just another projection West Wing

10 Interrupted Projection

11 Robinson Projection This projection blends techniques to make it a more accurate in three measures This projection blends techniques to make it a more accurate in three measures Distance Distance Area Area Shape Shape

12 Projection Comparison Mercator (cylindrical) False distance False direction False shape False area Interrupted False distance False direction True (or false!) shape True area Peters False distance False direction False shape True area Robinson (compromise) Fairly accurate distance False direction Fairly accurate shape Fairly accurate area

13 Map Conventions All good maps have: T O D A L S S itleitle rientationrientation ateate uthoruthor egendegend calecale ourceource

14 Map Types --Physical --Political --Thematic (special purpose) 1. Qualitative 2. Quantitative

15 Physical Maps show one or more natural features, such as mountains, lakes, rivers, and climate. Physical maps show one or more natural features, such as mountains, lakes, rivers, and climate. Relief maps show topography Topography: different elevations on the earths surface (height above sea level, such as hills, valleys, mountains)

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17 Political Maps Political maps show human-made, including country borders, state or province borders, capitals, and cities. Political maps show human-made political boundaries and features, including country borders, state or province borders, capitals, and cities.

18 Thematic Maps Thematic maps are special-purpose maps that show one or more specific features, or themes. There are two types of thematic maps 1. Qualitative 2. Quantitative

19 Qualitative Maps These maps show some quality (feature, phenomena) of the earth or humans These maps show some quality (feature, phenomena) of the earth or humans MINNESOTA LAND USE AND COVER 1990s CENSUS OF THE LAND

20 Quantitative Maps These maps display quantities (numbers) in a visual form. These maps display quantities (numbers) in a visual form.

21 Maps Through Time The oldest known maps were made on clay tablets by the Babylonians (~2300 BC). Ancient Greeks and Romans made many advances in cartography (i.e., Ptolemy) In the Middle Ages (~1200s-1400s), maps often had religious themes; Arabs excelled in mapmaking. During the Renaissance, printing presses made maps widely available; maps often were based on exploration and used for navigation.

22 Modern Cartography Maps became more accurate in the 18 th and 19 th centuries as technologies improved. Today most all maps are made on computers that use GIS (Geographic Information Systems). Other technologies used in cartography are aerial photography, satellite imagery, and GPS.


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