# AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY **Chapter 3 Class Notes**

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AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY **Chapter 3 Class Notes**
The Earth as Humanity’s Home

Humans Develop Permanent Settlements
Before??? After??? Agricultural Revolution Food Surplus Plant / Animal Domestication

Social Stratification
The diversification of tasks in society Creation of a social ladder (status) After permanent settlements, not everyone HAD to farm.

Early Ancestors Imprint on Cultural Landscape
Burned / Cut Down Forests Built Settlements Killed Wildlife Buried Dead Cave Drawings

R1-R9 Review In the Back of your Book!!!

Mercator Projection Greatly exaggerates dimensions of higher latitude landmasses Direction is true

Robinson Projection Better dimensions
Lacks directional unity - distorts shape, area, scale, and distance in an attempt to balance the errors of projection properties.

Each of the map projections previously discussed as well as any other type of map projection must consider two important factors. What is more important, depicting the accurate sizes of objects on the map, or depicting accurate shapes of these objects. The challenge is that you cannot have both. The more accurately you depict shape, the less accurate will be your depiction of size, and vise-versa.

(DON’T Have to Copy this one!!!)
A map which portrays shape accurately is called a conformal map. Conformal maps are useful in that they help us understand the true shape of the items on the map. However, these maps have many drawbacks. A conformal map tends to get quite distorted, especially towards the top and bottom of the map. This creates problems with scale. The scale may be accurate near the equator, but the further one travels form the equator, the less accurate the scale becomes.

Remote Sensing Remote Sensing - technology used to create maps, without having to physically touch the territory being described. Often deployed from a plane or satellite.

Contour Lines Lines to indicate elevation
Areas where contour lines are placed close together are steep slopes. Here, the South side of Mount Joy is a very steep slope.

Isoline Map A line on a map, chart, or graph connecting points of equal value.

Choropleth Map A thematic map in which areas are shaded or patterned in proportion to the measurement of the statistical variable being displayed on the map, such as population density

Cartogram Map Transforms Space (of political unit)
Greatest value for some type of data becomes largest mass of area

World Map of Political Borders

Cartogram Map – World Population
Borders/Area distorted to show data