Presentation on theme: "Goals: 1. Differentiate between latitude and longitude. 2. Understand that a topographic map is a 2-D model that displays 3D information 3. Describe map."— Presentation transcript:
Goals: 1. Differentiate between latitude and longitude. 2. Understand that a topographic map is a 2-D model that displays 3D information 3. Describe map characteristics such as scales, legends, and contour lines. 4. Analyze topographic maps. 5. Construct landscape profiles
Question of the Day August 30, 2011 Draw a map of your neighborhood, property (house and yard), or another familiar place.
Cartography Cartography is the science of mapmaking. Cartographers use an imaginary grid of parallel lines and vertical lines to locate exact points on Earth. Equator Equator - an imaginary line that circles the Earth halfway between the north and south poles. It is a line of latitude Latitude and Longitude
Lines of Latitude parallel Lines of Latitude - Lines running parallel to the equator. Latitude- the distance in degrees north or south of the equator. Equator - 0˚ latitude Equator - 0˚ latitude Latitude
Poles Poles - 90˚N and 90˚S Locations north of the equator are referred to by degrees north latitude (N). Locations south of the equator are referred to by degrees south latitude (S). Latitude
Each degree of latitude equals 111 km on Earths surface. How do they know that?? Earth is 40,000 km in circumference. Divide 40,000 by 360˚ 111 km Latitude
Lines of longitude Lines of longitude mark locations in east and west directions. Prime Meridian Prime Meridian - the reference point for longitude. 0˚ longitude Longitude
Prime Meridian goes through Greenwich England Semi Circles- Semi Circles- lines of longitude are NOT parallel. Vertical Lines Vertical Lines Longitude
Both latitude and longitude are needed to precisely locate positions on Earth. Coordinates : (degree latitude, degree longitude) Coordinates North or South East or West
37˚20 N, 79˚ 31 W Bedford, VA Latitude Longitude
Read Pages 27-31 Fill in Graphic Organizer Class Work
Latitude and Longitude Latitude Longitude Detail Picture Detail Picture
September 1, 2011 Maps are flat models of a 3-D object, Earth. However, Earth is curved, so it is difficult to represent on a flat piece of paper. What kind of effect do you think this has on maps of the Earth?
Since Earth is a sphere, it is difficult to represent on a flat piece of paper. Distortion : So, all flat maps distort either the shapes or the areas of landmasses.
Projections A map projection is made by transferring points and lines on a globes surface onto a piece of paper. 3 types of Projections: 1. Mercator Projection 2. Conic Projection 3. Gnomonic Projection Types of Maps
Mercator Projections- a map that has parallel lines of latitude AND longitude. (BTW- lines of longitude arent actually parallel, they cross at the poles) In effect : correct shapes of landmasses, but areas are distorted Used for : navigation of planes and ships. Mercator Projections
Conic Projection – made by projecting points and lines from a globe onto a cone. The cone touches the globe at a particular line of latitude. In effect : little distortion along that line of latitude, but a lot of distortion near top and bottom. Excellent for mapping small areas. Used for: road maps and weather maps. Conic Projections
Gnomonic- paper touches globe at a single point. In effect : direction and distance between landmasses are both distorted. Used for : planning long distance trips by air and by sea. -Great Circles Gnomonic Projections
Detailed maps showing the hills and valleys of an area. Show changes in elevation. Also show mountains, rivers, forests, bridges…etc Use lines, symbols, and colors to represent changes in elevation and features on Earths surface. Topographic Maps
Topographic Maps What do these three maps have in common?
Contour line- connects points of equal elevation. Contour lines NEVER CROSS because they connect points of equal elevation. Elevation- the distance above or below sea level. Contour Lines
Contour Interval - difference in elevation between two side-by-side contour lines. Index Contours- marked by numbers representing their elevations. Depression Contour Lines - dashes inside a contour line that represent a lower elevation than the surrounding landscape. Contour Line Terms
Map legend - explains what symbols represent Map scale - the ratio between distances on a map and the actual distances on Earth. More mapping terms
Make a mind map for the three types of map projections. Organize Information
1.What type of map is pictured below? 2.What are the lines on the map called?
Steep Slopes : contour lines are very close together, indicating a quick change in elevation. Identifying topographic features
Hills- usually one complete contour line within a small area, or a circle, marking the top of a hill. Hills
Sometimes two hills are connected by a saddle, and there are two distinct hills with contour lines surrounding them at their bases. 2 hills
The direction of stream flow can be identified by looking at Vs in the contour pattern. The Vs always point UPSTREAM. This stream is flowing south west, and then south Stream Flow
What direction is this stream flowing? ____________ Stream Flow N WE S
1.What is the latitude of the north end of Blue Lake? Use degrees and minutes. 2.What is the contour interval of the map? 3.What is the elevation of the top of White Mountain? 4.How many mountains are within the map? 5.In what range of elevations is the town of Dixon? 6.About how many miles across is the map? 7.What is the copyright of the map? Topographic Map Reading