Presentation on theme: "Mapping Our World Goals: Differentiate between latitude and longitude."— Presentation transcript:
1 Mapping Our World Goals: Differentiate between latitude and longitude. Understand that a topographic map is a 2-D model that displays 3D informationDescribe map characteristics such as scales, legends, and contour lines.Analyze topographic maps.Construct landscape profiles
2 Mapping Our World Question of the Day August 30, 2011Draw a map of your neighborhood, property (house and yard), or another familiar place.
3 Latitude and Longitude Cartography is the science of mapmaking.Cartographers use an imaginary grid of parallel lines and vertical lines to locate exact points on Earth.Equator- an imaginary line that circles the Earth halfway between the north and south poles.It is a line of latitude
4 Latitude Lines of Latitude- Lines running parallel to the equator. Latitude- the distance in degrees north or south of the equator.Equator - 0˚ latitude
5 LatitudePoles - 90˚N and 90˚S Locations north of the equator are referred to by degrees north latitude (N). Locations south of the equator are referred to by degrees south latitude (S).
6 Latitude Each degree of latitude equals 111 km on Earth’s surface. How do they know that??Earth is 40,000 km in circumference.Divide 40,000 by 360˚111 km
7 LongitudeLines of longitude mark locations in east and west directions. Prime Meridian- the reference point for longitude. 0˚ longitude
8 Longitude Prime Meridian goes through Greenwich England Semi Circles- lines of longitude are NOT parallel.Vertical Lines
9 CoordinatesBoth latitude and longitude are needed to precisely locate positions on Earth.Coordinates:(degree latitude, degree longitude)East or WestNorth or South
10 Bedford, VA37˚20’ N, 79˚ 31’ WLatitudeLongitude
11 Class WorkRead Pages 27-31Fill in Graphic Organizer
12 Latitude and Longitude DetailDetailLatitudeLongitudePicturePicture
13 Question of the DaySeptember 1, 2011 Maps are flat models of a 3-D object, Earth. However, Earth is curved, so it is difficult to represent on a flat piece of paper. What kind of effect do you think this has on maps of the Earth?
14 Types of MapsSince Earth is a sphere, it is difficult to represent on a flat piece of paper.Distortion:So, all flat maps distort either the shapes or the areas of landmasses.
15 Types of Maps Projections 3 types of Projections: A map projection is made by transferring points and lines on a globe’s surface onto a piece of paper.3 types of Projections:1. Mercator Projection2. Conic Projection3. Gnomonic Projection
16 Mercator ProjectionsMercator Projections- a map that has parallel lines of latitude AND longitude. (BTW- lines of longitude aren’t actually parallel, they cross at the poles) In effect: correct shapes of landmasses, but areas are distorted Used for: navigation of planes and ships.
18 Conic ProjectionsConic Projection – made by projecting points and lines from a globe onto a cone. The cone touches the globe at a particular line of latitude. In effect: little distortion along that line of latitude, but a lot of distortion near top and bottom. Excellent for mapping small areas. Used for: road maps and weather maps.
20 Gnomonic ProjectionsGnomonic- paper touches globe at a single point. In effect: direction and distance between landmasses are both distorted. Used for: planning long distance trips by air and by sea. -Great Circles
22 Topographic MapsDetailed maps showing the hills and valleys of an area.Show changes in elevation.Also show mountains, rivers, forests, bridges…etcUse lines, symbols, and colors to represent changes in elevation and features on Earth’s surface.
23 Topographic MapsWhat do these three maps have in common?
24 Contour Lines Contour line- connects points of equal elevation. Contour lines NEVER CROSS because they connect points of equal elevation.Elevation- the distance above or below sea level.
25 Contour Line TermsContour Interval- difference in elevation between two side-by-side contour lines. Index Contours- marked by numbers representing their elevations. Depression Contour Lines- dashes inside a contour line that represent a lower elevation than the surrounding landscape.
26 More mapping terms Map legend- explains what symbols represent Map scale- the ratio between distances on a map and the actual distances on Earth.
27 Organize InformationMake a mind map for the three types of map projections.
28 What type of map is pictured below? What are the lines on the map called?
30 Identifying topographic features Steep Slopes: contour lines are very close together, indicating a quick change in elevation.
31 HillsHills- usually one complete contour line within a small area, or a circle, marking the top of a hill.
32 2 hillsSometimes two hills are connected by a saddle, and there are two distinct hills with contour lines surrounding them at their bases.
33 Stream FlowThe direction of stream flow can be identified by looking at “V”s in the contour pattern.The V’s always point UPSTREAM.This stream is flowing south west, and then south
34 Stream Flow N W E S ____________ What direction is this stream flowing?____________
35 Topographic Map Reading What is the latitude of the north end of Blue Lake? Use degrees and minutes.What is the contour interval of the map?What is the elevation of the top of White Mountain?How many mountains are within the map?In what range of elevations is the town of Dixon?About how many miles across is the map?What is the copyright of the map?