# Geography Unit Chapter: Map Features

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Geography Unit Chapter: Map Features

Upon completion of Chapter: Map Features you will:
Understand how to utilize a map key to interpret different types of maps Use a scale on a map and convert distances from inches to centimeters and miles to kilometers Identify locations on a map using latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates Recognize the importance of the Prime Meridian and Equator and how the two lines identify hemispheres and determine seasons.

Geography Unit Chapter: Map Features Key Terms Map Features Title
Legend Scale Cardinal Directions Intermediate Directions Latitude/Longitude Hemispheres

Country Border Country Capital Other City Often a map has a key, or legend. The key shows the symbols and colors used on the map, and what each one means.

A map key explains what the symbols, shading, and colors on a map represent.
Symbols range from simple dots and circles that represent cities and capitals to tiny drawing that represent types of manufacturing and industry or agriculture. Shading and colors are used to show elevation, population density, political division, and so on. The map key for the map of China you have shows a combination of shading and drawings to represent economic activity and resources.

Map Key Activity Using the map of China, please answer the following questions: How many different types of shading are represented on the map key? What symbol is used to represent oil? Which part of China is least developed economically? Describe the economic activity and resources around Beijing. Based on the map, which city in China has the most varied manufacturing and industry? Why does the map use a combination of shadings and drawings to show economic activity and resources? Click here to download the map used for this activity:

Maps are drawn to different scales, depending on their purpose.
Some maps show large areas and need larger scales, while other maps show smaller areas and need smaller scales

The four Hemispheres Prime Meridian

0-90 North 0-90 South Parallels of Latitude Northern Hemisphere
Southern 0-90 South Hemisphere

HORIZONTALLY VERTICALLY
Latitude and Longitude Parallels of Latitude go around the Earth Meridians of Longitude go around the Earth HORIZONTALLY VERTICALLY

They are measured in degrees from 0-90 in both hemispheres
Parallels of Latitude Parallels of Latitude go around the Earth. The Equator separates the Earth into two hemispheres Each degree equals about 70 miles. How many miles is it from 0 to 90 North? How about 0 to 90 South? They are measured in degrees from 0-90 in both hemispheres

Meridians of Longitude
0-180 East 0-180 West The Prime Meridian is 0 Longitude The same line on the other half of the world is 180

Meridians of Longitude
As the Prime Meridian goes around the other side of the globe the degree changes to 180 180 180 Degrees is also where you find the International Date Line

Crossing the IDL There is a 14 hour time difference between Sydney and Los Angeles. If the flight to Los Angeles takes 14 hours, I arrive at the same day and time I departed. Arrive L.A., CA, USA at 8:00 a.m. Tuesday Depart Sydney NSW, AU at 8:00 a.m. Tuesday

The “Tropics” The area bounded by the Tropic of Cancer on the north and Tropic of Capricorn on the south is known as the "tropics." This area does not experience seasons because the sun is always high in the sky. Only higher latitudes, north of the Tropic of Cancer and south of the Tropic of Capricorn, experience significant seasonal variation in climate.

Map Projections Maps are drawings that show regions on flat surfaces
Maps cannot show the correct size and shape of every feature on the Earth’s surface No map projection can show accurately the correct shape and distance for the entire Earth’s surface Because of this problem, different types of maps are used for different reasons

Map Projections When you flatten a globe in order to make a map you create global gores. In order to make a map with these gores you have to distort the images.

Same Shape Map Projections
Mercator Map This map shows accurate shape and direction but it distorts distance and size. In other words, the map shows exactly WHAT the continents look like, but not where they are and how big or small they are.

Equal Area Map Projections
Map projections that show the correct size of landmasses are called equal-area maps. In order to show the correct size of landmasses, these maps usually distort shapes The distortion is usually greater at the edges of the map and less at the center.

Equal Area Map Projections
In order to make an equal area map, the gores are squeezed together at the top and bottom Robinson Map The Robinson map is a compromise between the Mercator and equal-area It keeps the size and shape relationships of most continents and oceans, but distorts the size of the polar regions.

Physical Maps Physical maps represent what a region looks like by showing its major physical features Physical maps also often show elevation and relief Elevation, indicated by colors, is the height of the land above sea level. Relief, indicated by shading, shows how sharply the land rises or falls.