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…and how they help us express ourselves.. Dog The dog ran.

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Presentation on theme: "…and how they help us express ourselves.. Dog The dog ran."— Presentation transcript:

1 …and how they help us express ourselves.

2 Dog

3 The dog ran.

4 The brown dog ran.

5 The brown dog ran quickly.

6 The brown dog ran quickly in the street.

7 The brown and white dog ran quickly in the street.

8 Oh! The brown and white dog ran quickly in the street.

9 What is syntax? It is basically the structure of a sentence. There are four structures used in our language. 1. simple 2. compound 3. complex 4. compound-complex

10 The brown and white dog ran quickly in the street. A simple sentence is simple because it follows a basic (simple) pattern of construction: Subject + Predicate (Verb) We call this an independent clause. A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb. Independent means it can stand all by itself: it is independent. The brown and white dog ran quickly in the street. The subject is “The brown and white dog.” The predicate (verb) is “ran quickly in the street.

11 The brown and white dog ran quickly in the street, but the spotted dog just stayed on the front porch and slept.

12 A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses. What’s an independent clause? That means that a compound sentence has at least two complete sentences joined together in some way. What part of speech joins words or phrases? That’s right! Conjunctions do. So, a compound sentence will more than likely have a conjunction that is joining the two independent clauses (2 complete sentences). The brown and white dog ran quickly in the street, but the spotted dog just stayed on the front porch and slept.

13 So, where are the two complete sentences (2 independent clauses) in this one compound sentence? The brown and white dog ran quickly in the street, but the spotted dog just stayed on the front porch and slept. So, how do you punctuate a compound sentence?

14 There are 3 ways you can correctly punctuate a compound sentence. (1) Use a comma and then a conjunction. The brown and white dog ran quickly in the street, but the spotted dog just stayed on the front porch and slept. (2) Use a semicolon. The brown and white dog ran quickly in the street ; the spotted dog just stayed on the front porch and slept.

15 (3) Use a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb. The brown and white dog ran quickly in the street ;meanwhile, the spotted dog just stayed on the front porch and slept. What do you notice about the punctuation? That’s right! There is always a comma after the conjunctive adverb. Common conjunctive adverbs: therefore, instead, still, also, nevertheless, however

16 While the brown and white dog ran quickly in the street, the spotted dog just stayed on the front porch and slept. A complex sentence includes one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses. A subordinate clause is a group of words THAT CANNOT STAND ALONE AS A SENTENCE! Subordinate clauses are sometimes also called dependent clauses.

17 Phrases that begin with certain words are usually subordinate, which means they can’t stand alone as a complete sentence. **who John, who is our youth minister at church, is a really nice fellow. **that The softball game that was played yesterday was an important victory for the team. **after After the football team wins on Friday night, the crowd in the stadium will cheer loudly. **although Although this school has a small student population, we have very strong sports programs. **because President Obama is under a lot of pressure right now because of the terrorist activities of ISIS in Syria. **if If you know the answer, please do not shout out in exclamation. ** which The Jr. Beta Club is traveling to Gatlinburg, Tennessee, in October to attend a leader conference which lasts three days.

18 While the brown and white dog ran quickly in the street, the spotted dog just stayed on the front porch and slept. If the subordinate clause is at the beginning of the sentence, there is always a comma after it.

19 The spotted dog just stayed on the front porch and slept while the brown and white dog ran quickly in the street.. If the subordinate clause is at the end of the sentence, there is no comma used.

20 The spotted dog, who has been on our property since March, just stayed on the front porch and slept while the brown and white dog ran quickly in the street.. If the subordinate clause is at the end of the sentence, there is no comma used.

21 Complete Exercise 5 on page in the yellow language book.

22 Complete the handout “Complex Sentences #1”.

23 After Because Before If Once Unless When Whenever Whatever While

24 in the street Not a complete thought Not a complete thought This is called a phrase. This is called a phrase. It’s just a group of words put together; there is no verb or subject. It’s just a group of words put together; there is no verb or subject. The dog is in the street. Expresses a complete thought. Expresses a complete thought. This is called an independent clause. This is called an independent clause. It’s a group of words with a subject and a verb that can stand alone as a complete thought. It’s a group of words with a subject and a verb that can stand alone as a complete thought.

25 The dog is in the street. Expresses a complete thought. Expresses a complete thought. This is an independent clause. This is an independent clause. It’s has a subject and a verb and can stand alone as a complete thought. It’s has a subject and a verb and can stand alone as a complete thought. When the dog is in the street Not a complete thought Not a complete thought The word “when” at the beginning is a clue that this is not complete. The word “when” at the beginning is a clue that this is not complete. This is called a dependent clause. This is called a dependent clause. It’s a group of words with a subject and a verb that cannot stand alone as a complete thought. It’s a group of words with a subject and a verb that cannot stand alone as a complete thought.

26 The cat and dog are running and jumping in the street. This is still a simple sentence. Has a subject The cat and dog are running and jumping in the street. We call this a compound subject Has a verb The cat and dog are running and jumping in the street. We call this a compound verb May have phrases The cat and dog are running and jumping in the street. But there is just one independent clause. The cat and dog are running and jumping in the street.

27 The dog is in the street, and the cat is on the porch. There are two independent clauses, each with a subject and a verb. The first independent clause: The dog is in the street Has a subject The dog is in the street Has a verb The dog is in the street The second independent clause: the cat is on the porch Has a subject the cat is on the porch Has a verb the cat is on the porch A compound sentence may also have phrases The dog is in the street, and the cat is on the porch. But there are just two independent clauses. The dog is in the street, and the cat is on the porch.

28 Choose one of the topics from the list below, and write a paragraph that contains at least two simple sentences and two compound sentences about the selected topic. My craziest experience in a restaurant or shopping mall The hardest thing I’ve ever done My first encounter with a bully My favorite senior citizen. The toys I’ll never give up A friend who moved away My first job A time when I put my foot in my mouth What if school sports were dropped? What do I worry about? What do we Americans do well?

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33 Running down the street, I watched my dog.

34 “Running down the street” is a misplaced modifier. What is a misplaced modifier? What does misplaced mean? Misplaced means “in the wrong place” or maybe “not where it is supposed to be”. So, misplaced modifiers are phrases that are placed in the wrong location in a sentence. How do you correct a sentence with a misplaced modifier? It’s easy. You put the phrase next to what it is describing and add words as needed to make sure the sentence makes sense.

35 I watched my dog running down the street. While I was running down the street, I watched my dog chase a cat up a tree.

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37 Become Became (have) become Begin Began (have) begun Blow Blew (have)blown

38 Break Broke (have) broken Bring Brought (have) brought Build Built (have) built

39 With your TPS partner, complete the IRREGULAR VERBS CHART I have given you. You will have 15 minutes to think through the different forms of these irregular verbs; then, we will go over the correct answers together as a whole group.

40 Burst (have) burst Buy Bought (have) bought Choose Chose (have) chosen

41 Come Came (have) come Cost (have) cost Cut (have) cut

42 Do Did (Have) done Draw Drew (Have) drawn Drink Drank (Have) drunk

43 Drive Drove (Have) driven Eat Ate (Have) eaten Fall Fell (Have) fallen

44 Feel Felt (have) felt Fight Fought (have) fought Find Found (have) found

45 Fly Flew (have) flown Freeze Froze (have) frozen Get Got (have) gotten or got

46 Give Gave (have) given Go Went (have) gone Grow Grew (have) grown

47 Have Had (have) had Hear Heard (have) heard Hide Hid (have) hidden or hid

48 Hit (have) hit Hold Held (have) held Keep Kept (have) kept

49 Know Knew (have) known Lead Led (have) led Leave Left (have) left

50 Let (have) Let Light Lighted or lit (have) lighted or lit Lose Lost (have) lost

51 Make Made (have) made Put (have) put Read (have) read

52 Ride Rode (have) ridden Ring Rang (have) rung Run Ran (have) run

53 Say Said (have) said See Saw (have) seen Seek Sought (have) sought

54 Shake Shook (have) shaken Sing Sang (have) sung Sink Sank or sunk (have) sunk

55 Slide Slid (have) slid Speak Spoke (have) spoken Spend Spent (have) spent

56 Stand Stood (have) stood Steal Stole (have) stolen Sting Stung (have) stung

57 Strike Struck (have) struck or stricken Swim Swam (have) swum Take Took (have) taken

58 Teach Taught (have) taught Tear Tore (have) torn Tell Told (have) told

59 Think Thought (have) thought Throw Threw (have) thrown Wear Wore (have) worn

60 Win Won (have) won Write Wrote (have) written

61 Complete Exercise 2 And Exercise 3 On pages You may just write the answers for these two exercises.

62 Complete Review A and Review B on page 525 in the blue language book. You MUST WRITE OUT the sentences and the paragraph; please underline the verb you inserted.

63 The catcher caught the ball. The ball was caught by the catcher.

64 Active voice is a preferred style of writing for several reasons. (1.) Active voice uses fewer words. (2.) Active voice is more direct and more “vivid”. How do you know if something is written in active voice? (1.) There are NO HELPING VERBS. (2.) There are FEWER WORDS USED.

65 Complete PRACTICE WORKSHEET: Exercise 1 Complete PRACTICE WORKSHEET: Exercise 2 (homework)

66 Tara fielded the ball and throws it to the catcher.

67 What does this mean? Well, what is a verb? What does consistency mean? Consistency means THE SAME. So when we talk about VERB CONSISTENCY, we are talking about using the SAME VERB TENSE consistently throughout a passage. For example, if the passage begins in past tense, then the rest of the passage needs to be in past tense. We don’t SHIFT TENSES!!

68 1. Present 2. Past 3. Future 4. Present Perfect 5. Past Perfect 6. Future Perfect Read pages and take notes on the six verb tenses, including explanation and examples.

69 Used to express action or a state of being that is occurring now The new jet has two engines. Leotie belongs to the Latin Club. They are decorating the gym.

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76 For the VERB TENSE you have drawn, prepare a presentation to share with the class that EXPLAINS WHAT THE VERB TENSE MEANS. Share EXAMPLES of the VERB TENSE and EXPLAIN HOW those examples show what the verb tense means. Each member of the group must share information during the presentation. Using the paper and markers you have been given, you need to create a visual aid to use during your presentation.

77 Complete Exercise 5 on page 533. Please write out the sentence you write using the verb tense noted in parenthesis for each numbered item.

78 Tony fielded the ball and throws the runner out.

79 Complete Ex. 6 On page 534. Now, rewrite that same paragraph in a different verb tense.

80 The ModifierComparative FormSuperlative Form -an adjective (usually) -Describing words -big -beautiful -compare -likeness -bigger -more beautiful -above & beyond -the highest degree -biggest -most beautiful

81 Complete Review A on page 579 Add the words to the chart in your Pondering Pad

82 Bad/badly Good/well Real/really Slow/slowly P. 575


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