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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 14 Animals of the Pelagic Environment
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Overview Pelagic animals use a variety of adaptations to help them survive. Marine mammals share similar characteristics with land mammals.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Adaptations….. Ability to float –Zooplankton – some produce fats or oils to stay afloat Ability to swim –Nekton – larger fish and marine mammals
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Microscopic Zooplankton –Radiolarians –Foraminifers –Copepods
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Copepods
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Macroscopic Zooplankton Krill –Resemble mini shrimp or large copepods –Abundant near Antarctica –Critical in Antarctic food chains
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Floating Macroscopic Zooplankton Portuguese man-of-war gas-filled float Jellyfish soft, low-density bodies
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Swimming Organisms Fish, squids, sea turtles, marine mammals Swim by trapping water and expelling it, Swim by curving body from front to back
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Swimming Motion and General Fish Features
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Adaptations for Finding Prey Lungers wait for prey and pounce (grouper). Cruisers actively seek prey (tuna).
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lungers and Cruisers
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Adaptations to Avoid Predation Speed Poison Hiding: Transparency, Camouflage and Countershading- already discussed Schooling
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Adaptations to Avoid Predation Schooling –Safety in numbers –Appear as a larger unit –Maneuvers confuse predator
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Marine Mammals Land-dwelling ancestors Warm-blooded Breathe air Hair/fur Bear live young Mammary glands for milk
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Marine Mammal Groups
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Order Carnivora Prominent canine teeth Sea otters Polar bears Pinnipeds –Walruses –Seals –Sea lions –Fur seals
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Carnivora
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Seals vs. Sea Lions Seals lack ear flaps Seals have smaller front flippers Different hip structures
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Marine Mammal Groups
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Order Sirenia Herbivores Manatees –Coastal areas of tropical Atlantic Ocean Dugongs –Coastal areas of Indian and western Pacific Oceans
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Order Cetacea Whales, dolphins, porpoises Elongated skull Blowholes on top of skull
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Order Cetacea
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Order Cetacea Suborder Odontoceti: Toothed whales) –Dolphins, porpoises, killer whale, sperm whaleDolphinskiller whalesperm whale –Echolocation for shape, size of objects
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Echolocation Emit clicks and get return Detect fish Can be used to stun fish at close range Sperm whales hunt giant squid
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Intelligence in Toothed Whales Large brains relative to body size Can communicate with each other Trainable
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Order Cetacea Suborder Mysticeti: Baleen whales Blue, Finback, Humpback, Gray, Right whales Fibrous plates (baleen) sieve prey itemsFibrous plates Can vocalize soundsvocalize
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Use of Baleen
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Baleen Whale Families Gray whales Humpback whales Right whales
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Gray Whale MigrationMigration 13,700 miles from coastal Arctic to Baja Feeding grounds in Arctic (summer) Breeding and birthing grounds in Baja (winter)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Gray Whales Feeding Turn on side Scoop bottom Sift sand and filter out small crustaceans
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Gray Whale Friendly BehaviorFriendly Behavior
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Baleen Whales Humpback whales
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Whales as Endangered Species Fewer whales now than before whaling Hunting of gray whale banned in 1938 Gray removed from endangered list in 1993 as population rebounded
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Whaling International Whaling Commission (IWC) 1948 – established to manage whale hunting In 1986, 72 IWC nations banned whaling Three ways to legally hunt whales: –Objection to IWC ban-Norway –Aboriginal subsistence whaling-Alaska –Scientific whaling-Japan 1000’s of whales????
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Exploitation Status of Marine Fish
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Overfishing 80% of available fish stock fully exploited, overexploited, or depleted/recovering Large predatory fish reduced
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Incidental Catch or Bycatch Non-commercial species are taken incidentally by commercial fishers. Bycatch may be up to 8 times more than the intended catch. –Birds, turtles, dolphins, sharks
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Tuna and Dolphins Tuna and dolphins swim together Caught in purse seine net Marine Mammals Protection Act addendum for dolphins Driftnets or gill nets banned in 1989
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Purse Seine Net
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fisheries Management Regulate fishing Create Self-sustaining ecosystems Enforcement difficult-International waters
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fisheries Management Consumer choices in seafood Consume and purchase seafood from healthy, thriving fisheries –Examples: farmed seafood, Alaska salmon Ecosystem-based fishery management Avoid overfished or depleted seafood –Examples: tuna, shark, shrimp
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Seafood Choices
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