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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 14 Animals of the Pelagic Environment
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Overview Pelagic animals use a variety of adaptations to help them survive. Marine mammals share similar characteristics with land mammals.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Marine Animals Avoid Sinking May increase buoyancy Use of gas containers –Rigid gas containers –Swim bladders
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Avoiding Sinking Ability to float –Zooplankton – some produce fats or oils to stay afloat Ability to swim –Nekton – larger fish and marine mammals
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Floating Zooplankton Microscopic zooplankton have shells or tests. –Radiolarians –Foraminifers –Copepods
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Copepods
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Macroscopic Zooplankton Krill –Resemble mini shrimp or large copepods –Abundant near Antarctica –Critical in Antarctic food chains
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Floating Macroscopic Zooplankton Cnidarians –Hydrozoan (Portuguese man-of- war) gas-filled float –Scyphozoan (jellyfish) Soft, low-density bodies
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Swimming Organisms Fish, squids, sea turtles, marine mammals Swim by trapping water and expelling it, e.g., some squid Swim by curving body from front to back
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Swimming Motion and General Fish Features
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fin Designs in Fish Paired vertical fins as stabilizers Paired pelvic fins and pectoral fins for “steering” and balance Tail fin (caudal) for thrust
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fin Designs in Fish Rounded caudal fins –Flexible –Maneuver at slow speeds Truncate fins and forked fins –Useful for both maneuvering and thrust
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fin Designs in Fish Lunate fins –Rigid, little maneuverability – Efficient propulsion for fast swimmers Heterocercal fins –Asymmetrical, –Lift for buoyancy (shark)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Adaptations for Finding Prey Mobility Lungers wait for prey and pounce (grouper). –Mainly white muscle tissue Cruisers actively seek prey (tuna). –Mostly red muscle tissue
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lungers and Cruisers
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Adaptations for Finding Prey Swimming speed Speed generally proportional to size Can move very fast for short time (mainly to avoid predation)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Cold-Blooded vs. Warm-Blooded Most fish are cold-blooded – poikilothermic –Bodies same temperature as environment –Not fast swimmers Some are warm-blooded – homeothermic –Found in warmer environments –Helps them capture prey
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Adaptations of Deep-Water Nekton Mainly fish that consume detritus or each other Lack of abundant food Bioluminescence –photophores Large, sensitive eyes Large sharp teeth Expandable bodies Hinged jaws Counterillumination
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Deep Sea Nekton
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Adaptations to Avoid Predation Schooling –Safety in numbers –School may appear as single larger unit –Schooling maneuvers confuse predator
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Adaptations to Avoid Predation Symbiosis – two or more organisms mutually benefit from association Commensalism – less dominant organism benefits without harming host
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Adaptations to Avoid Predation Mutualism – both organisms benefit –Example: clown fish and anemone Parasitism – parasite benefits at expense of host
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Adaptations to Avoid Predation Speed Poisons Mimicry Transparency Camouflage Countershading
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Marine Mammals Land-dwelling ancestors Warm-blooded Breathe air Hair/fur Bear live young Mammary glands for milk
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Marine Mammal Groups
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Order Carnivora Prominent canine teeth Sea otters Polar bears Pinnipeds –Walruses –Seals –Sea lions –Fur seals
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Carnivora
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Seals vs. Sea Lions and Fur Seals Seals lack prominent ear flaps Seals have smaller front flippers Seals have fore flipper claws Different hip structures Different locomotion strategies
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Order Sirenia Herbivores Manatees –Coastal areas of tropical Atlantic Ocean Dugongs –Coastal areas of Indian and western Pacific Oceans
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Order Cetacea Whales, dolphins, porpoises Elongated skull Blowholes on top of skull Few hairs Fluke – horizontal tail fin for vertical propulsion
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Order Cetacea
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Order Cetacea Adaptations to increase swimming speed –Streamlined bodies –Specialized skin structure 80% water Stiff inner layer Narrow canals with spongy material
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Order Cetacea Adaptations for deep diving Use oxygen efficiently –Able to absorb 90% of oxygen inhaled –Able to store large quantities of oxygen –Able to reduce oxygen required for noncritical organs Muscles insensitive to buildup of carbon dioxide Collapsible lungs
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Order Cetacea Suborder Odontoceti (toothed) –Dolphins, porpoises, killer whale, sperm whale –Echolocation to determine distance and direction to objects –Determine shape, size of objects
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Dolphins vs. Porpoises Porpoises –Smaller, more stout body shape –Blunt snout –Triangular, smaller dorsal fin –Blunt or flat teeth Dolphins –Larger, more streamlined shape –Longer rostrum –Falcate dorsal fin (hooked) –Pointy teeth like killer whales (orca)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Echolocation Good vision of marine mammals is limited by ocean conditions. Mammals emit clicks of different pitches. –Low frequency – great distance –High frequency – closer range Dolphins can detect schools of fish at more than 100 meters (330 feet).
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Echolocation Toothed whales send sound through water. Sound is reflected, returned to the animal, and interpreted. An evolved inner ear structure may help toothed whales pick up sounds. Increased marine noise pollution may affect cetacean echolocation.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Echolocation
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Intelligence in Toothed Whales Large brains relative to body size Communicate with each other Brains convoluted Trainable
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Order Cetacea Suborder Mysticeti Baleen whales Blue whale, finback whale, humpback whale, gray whale, right whale Fibrous plates of baleen sieve prey items Vocalized sounds for various purposes
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Use of Baleen
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Baleen Whale Families Gray whales Rorqual whales –Balaenopterids –Megapterids – humpback whales Right whales
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Gray Whale Migration 22,000 km (13,700 miles) annual migration from coastal Arctic Ocean to Baja California and Mexico Feeding grounds in Arctic (summer) Breeding and birthing grounds in tropical eastern Pacific (winter)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Whales as Endangered Species Fewer whales now than before whaling International Whaling Treaty Hunting of gray whale banned in 1938 Gray removed from endangered list in 1993 as population rebounded
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Gray Whale Friendly Behavior
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Whaling International Whaling Commission (IWC) 1948 – established to manage whale hunting In 1986, 72 IWC nations banned whaling Three ways to legally hunt whales: –Objection to IWC ban –Scientific whaling –Aboriginal subsistence whaling
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. End of CHAPTER 14 Animals of the Pelagic Environment
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