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Marine Mammals Introductory Oceanography Ray Rector - Instructor.

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Presentation on theme: "Marine Mammals Introductory Oceanography Ray Rector - Instructor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marine Mammals Introductory Oceanography Ray Rector - Instructor

2 Main Concepts – Marine Mammals 1) Marine vertebrate animals that possess lungs for breathing, mammary glands for nursing and body hair; give birth to live young; many have flippers for swimming; all are “warm-blooded.” 2) All marine mammals’ ancestors were originally land mammals that, over a long period of time, adapted to living in the ocean 3) There are about 110 species of marine mammals 4) Three taxonomic Orders of marine mammals: Order Cetacea -- toothed and baleen whales Order Carnivora - Suborder Pinnipedia = (seals, sea lions, and walruses); also the sea otters and polar bear Order Sirenia (manatees and dugongs) 5) Most marine mammals sit near the top of the food chain except for the baleen whales and the sea cows. 6) Most marine mammals face difficult environmental challenges

3 The Marine Mammals Cetaceans Carnivores Sirenians Pinnipeds

4 Order Cetacea – The Whales I. Suborder Odontoceti – Toothed Whales II. Suborder Mysticeti - Baleen Whales 1)Right whale 2)Pygmy right whale 3)Gray whale 4)Rorqual whales 1)Sperm whales 2)Beaked whales 3)Belugas and narwhal whales 4)River Dolphins 5)Dolphins 6)Porpoises

5 Suborder Mysticeti - Baleen Whales Family Balaenopteridae..... Rorquals Family Balaenidae..... Right Whales Family Eschrichtiidae..... Gray Whales Family Neobalaenidae..... Pygmy Right Whales

6 Family Balaenopteridae (Roquals) Fin Whale Minke Whale MYSTICETIMYSTICETIMYSTICETIMYSTICETI MYSTICETIMYSTICETIMYSTICETIMYSTICETI Bryde’s Whale Humpback Whale Blue Whale

7 Family Balaenidae Bowhead Whale Pygmy Right Whale Gray Whale MYSTICETIMYSTICETIMYSTICETIMYSTICETI MYSTICETIMYSTICETIMYSTICETIMYSTICETI Right Whale Family Eschrichtiidae Family Neobalaenidae

8 Mysticeti Whales – Lunge Feeding Baleen Plate

9 Suborder Odontoceti – Toothed Whales Family Physeteridae..... Sperm Whales Family Ziphiidae..... Beaked Whales Family Delphinidae..... Marine Dolphins Family Platanistidae*..... Freshwater Dolphins Family Phocoenidae..... Porpoises Family Monodontidae..... Belugas & Narwhals  Odontoceti whales have the ability to echolocate

10 Delphinidae Family of Whales Porpoise Dolphin Killer Whale Pilot Whale

11 Odontoceti Whales - Echolocation Dolphins Dolphin Killer Whales Pilot Whales Porpoises Sperm whales

12 Dolphin or Porpoise? – How to Tell the Difference   Porpoises are in the family Phocoenidae   Dolphins are in the family Delphinidae   Porpoises are relatively small and lack a “beak” or rostrum   Dolphins generally grow larger and have a distinctive beak   Porpoises are chubby-looking   Dolphins have a generally sleek-shaped body   Teeth of the porpoise are spade-shaped   Teeth of the dolphin are conical or cone-shaped   Porpoise dorsal fin is triangular-shaped   Dolphin fins are wave-shaped Some Differences

13 Breaching Underside Playing “Volley-Seal” Pod Beach Hunting Killer Whales

14 Cetacea Evolution Cenozoic Evolutionary Lineages Cenozoic Evolutionary Lineages

15 Cetacea Evolution From Terrestrial to Aquatic A. Mesonychid (58 Ma) B. Ambulocetus (50 Ma) C. Rodhocetus (46 Ma) D. Basilosaurus (42 Ma)

16 Problems Encountered by Marine Mammals   Food Supply   Predators   Parasites   HAB’s   Pollution   Over Fishing   Accidental Netting   Boating Accidents   Noise Pollution   Malicious Acts   Beaching

17 Commercial Whaling

18

19 Suborder Pinnipedia – 1)Seals 2)Sea Lions 3)Elephant Seals 4)Leopard Seals 5)Walruses Variety Evolution

20 Pinnipeds - Anatomic Variations Seals versus Sea Lions

21 Sea Otters

22 Polar Bears

23 Summary– Marine Mammals 1) Marine vertebrate animals that possess lungs for breathing, mammary glands for nursing and body hair; give birth to live young; many have flippers for swimming; all are “warm-blooded.” 2) All marine mammals’ ancestors were originally land mammals that, over a long period of time, adapted to living in the ocean 3) There are about 110 species of marine mammals 4) Three taxonomic Orders of marine mammals: Order Cetacea -- toothed and baleen whales Order Carnivora - Suborder Pinnipedia = (seals, sea lions, and walruses); also the sea otters and polar bear Order Sirenia (manatees and dugongs) 5) Most marine mammals sit near the top of the food chain except for the baleen whales and the sea cows. 6) Most marine mammals face difficult environmental challenges

24 Conclusion


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