symptoms & cause Abnormal Behavior <--- Psychological Disorder (observable symptoms) <--- (underlying cause) BUT Other possible reasons for abnormal behavior All we have are the symptoms
Analyzing “Abnormal Behavior” Some combination of four criteria
Four Standard Criteria 1. Statistical deviance 2. Cultural deviance 3. Emotional distress 4. Dysfunction
The Normal-to-Abnormal Continuum
Examples of abnormality: Are they mentally ill?
Vincent van Gogh
Osama Bin Laden?
Berkeley’s naked guy?
Abnormality vs. insanity Insanity is a legal concept Awareness of right-wrong at the time of the crime Implication: if insane, then not guilty of the crime Paradox: – the more abnormal the behavior is: –(a) the less guilty they are legally, but –(b) the more people want to punish
Jeffrey Dahmer -bizarre but coherent
Andrea Yates -bizarre but incoherent
Colonel Russell Williams -bizarre but coherent and successful
Two Models of Mental Illness Medical model Sociological model
Medical Model -Abnormal behavior is caused by a disease -Categorical -Measurable symptoms -Cured with appropriate therapy
Sociological Model completely arbitrary emphasizes cultural deviance criterion e.g., homosexuality – now only if distressing e.g., pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS) repression of artists, writers, political extremists,
DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Bible for clinical psychologists and psychiatrists Organizes and categorizes mental illness
Five axes of the DSM I: Clinical disorders II: Personality disorders III: Medical conditions IV: Environmental conditions V: Global functioning
DSM-5 New since 2013 Even more controversial Even more disorders (tobacco-use disorder) Psychologists vs. psychiatrists