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Introduction to Abnormal Psychology

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1 Introduction to Abnormal Psychology
Psychology II Introduction to Abnormal Psychology

2 Explain what is ‘abnormal’
Defining Abnormality What does it mean to be sane or insane? Seemingly simple, but complex concept

3 Defining Abnormality Statistical Definition
Is something atypical considered abnormal? Societal and cultural norms definition

4 Defining Abnormality Distress Definition - however, there are times when abnormal behavior is not distressing Manic phase of bipolar depression Antisocial personality disorder

5 Defining Abnormality Impairment in functioning
Cognitive Emotional Behavioral Sometimes, this is not “abnormal” Depression over a death

6 Defining Abnormality Difficult to define… 3 Criteria…
Deviance Distress Disability/Maladaptive Behavior Symptom/Behavior Continuum: normal range Abnormal Abnormal

7 Defining Abnormality DSM-IV-TR Definition
Behavioral, emotional or cognitive dysfunctions that are; unexpected in their cultural context associated with personal distress, or substantial impairment in functioning

8 Defining Abnormality Abnormal behavior must be a consistent pattern of behavior “Thousand light years running through my brain reminding me that no one’s sane, not all the time” What is considered abnormal depends on various factors "And those who were seen dancing were thought to be insane by those who could not hear the music." Friedrich Nietzsche

9 Defining Abnormality Characteristics of abnormal behavior.
Statistical deviance Cultural deviance Emotional Distress Dysfunction Problems with labeling mentally ill: Rosenhan study – “On being sane in insane places” Just being labeled insane can tremendously affect how people react to you

10 Labeling Issues Reasons to Label/Diagnose: Arguments against Labeling:
Needed for communication Guide treatment Insurance reimbursement Arguments against Labeling: Creates a stigma Creates a self-fulfilling prophecy Fail to see the person behind the disorder

11 Ancient Perspective Perceived Causes Ancient Treatments
movements of sun or moon lunacy- full moon evil spirits Ancient Treatments exorcism, caged like animals, beaten, burned, mutilated, blood replaced with animal’s blood

12 Bio-Psycho-Social <BPS> Model
Biological (chemistry, brain) Psychological (learned helplessness, negative perceptions and memories) Sociocultural (Societal expectations, definition of normality and disorder) assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders

13 Medical Model Diagnosis Prognosis Etiology Label for a set of symptoms
Prediction or forecast for the course of a D/O Etiology Suspected cause of a disorder

14 Classifying Disorders
DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, th edition, Text Revision Published by the American Psychiatric Association 2000…(most recent update 2004) Next major revision (DSM-V) anticipated for 2011. Provides for reliable classification and description of all mental illnesses Allows for better communication

15 Classifying Disorders
DSM IV- Purpose: Provide a well-defined classification system based on objective and measurable criteria, reliable diagnoses of psychological disorders

16 DSM’s Multi-axial Diagnosis
Axis I Major Clinical Disorders Axis II Mental Retardation & Personality Disorders Axis III General Medical Conditions Axis IV Psychosocial/Environmental Stressors Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning # between 1 and 100 Current and Highest in past year

17 Major Classes of Disorders
Anxiety Disorders Mood Disorders Somatoform Disorders Dissociative Disorders Schizophrenia Substance Use Disorders Other Axis I Disorders Personality Disorders (Axis II)

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