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Historic American Documents Blueprints for Our Nation and its People.

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Presentation on theme: "Historic American Documents Blueprints for Our Nation and its People."— Presentation transcript:

1 Historic American Documents Blueprints for Our Nation and its People

2 The Standards TOPIC: HISTORIC DOCUMENTS Some documents in American history have considerable importance for the development of the nation. Students use historical thinking to examine key documents which form the basis for the United States of America.

3 Historical Thinking TOPIC: HISTORICAL THINKING AND SKILLS Students apply skills by utilizing a variety of resources to construct theses and support or refute contentions made by others. Alternative explanations of historical events are analyzed and questions of historical inevitability are explored. CONTENT STATEMENTS: 1. Historical events provide opportunities to examine alternative courses of action. 2. The use of primary and secondary sources of information includes an examination of the credibility of each source. 3. Historians develop theses and use evidence to support or refute positions. 4. Historians analyze cause, effect, sequence and correlation in historical events, including multiple causation and long- and short-term causal relations.

4 The Standards CONTENT STATEMENTS: 5. The Declaration of Independence reflects an application of Enlightenment ideas to the grievances of British subjects in the American colonies. 6. The Northwest Ordinance addressed a need for government in the Northwest Territory and established precedents for the future governing of the United States.

5 The Standards 7. Problems facing the national government under the Articles of Confederation led to the drafting of the Constitution of the United States.The framers of the Constitution applied ideas of Enlightenment in conceiving the new government. 8. The Federalist Papers and the Anti-Federalist Papers structured the national debate over the ratification of the Constitution of the United States.

6 The Standards 9. The Bill of Rights is derived from English law, ideas of the Enlightenment, the experiences of the American colonists, early experiences of self-government and the national debate over the ratification of the Constitution of the United States.

7 The Documents ●Declaration of Independence ●Northwest Ordinance ●Articles of Confederation ●United States Constitution o Bill of Rights ●Federalist and Antifederalist Papers

8 Why Study these Documents? ●To understand the laws of our country o past and present ●To study the history of our country o How we got to this point in time o Why our laws exist as they are ●To be successful and responsible citizens o “Freedom is not free” o Our rights and responsibilities

9 The Declaration of Independence ●Declaration- a formal or explicit statement or announcement. ●Independence- condition of a country in which its residents exercise self-government over the territory.countryself-government

10 The Declaration of Independence ●Colonization of North America o Columbus - 1492 o Various nations follow and set up colonies ●By 1763 in North America: o 13 British colonies (East Coast, Canada) o French Territory (Midwest, Northwest) o Spanish Territory (Southwest) o Native Americans live throughout MAP

11 The Declaration of Independence ●Who is declaring independence from who? o American Colonies from Great Britain ●Why do colonies want to be independent? o No representation in Parliament  Taxes, new and old  Paying for Wars with French, Spanish, Natives  Aggression from British military and Parliament

12 The Declaration of Independence ●Major events lead to Declaration: o Proclamation of 1763 o New taxes on sugar, stamps, more…1763-1776 o Townshend Acts of 1767 o Boston Massacre of 1770 o Tea taxes to save BEIC ---->Boston Tea Party 1773 o “Intolerable” Acts of 1774 o First Continental Congress of 1774 o Lexington and Concord in April of 1775

13 The Declaration of Independence ●Congress moves forward o Second Continental Congress, May 1775 ●Fighting continues through 1775 and 1776 o Battles in Canada, North Carolina, then everywhere ●Some colonists are still loyalists ●Others separate as patriots

14 The Declaration of Independence ●Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, John Hancock Lead patriotic groups, Sons of Liberty ●January 1776 - Thomas Paine’s Common Sense o “Give me liberty, or give me death!” ●Late June 1776 - Thomas Jefferson’s draft o July 4, 1776 - Declaration accepted by 13 colonies

15 The Declaration of Independence ●The document: 3 partsThe document o Preamble: declaring independence, describing good government o Indictments: what King George III, Parliament has done wrong o Conclusion: consequences of actions  Signatures ●Uses ideas and language from Enlightenment  Locke’s ‘Natural Rights’, Hobbes' ‘Social Contract’

16 Declaration of Independence ●Enlightenment philosophy included: o Natural or “Unalienable Rights”: life, liberty, property o Government for the good of the people o Government by consent of the people ●Effects of Declaration of Independence: o Revolutionary War o Independence for United States at conclusion o Precedence for other national revolutions

17 Articles of Confederation & Constitution ●After Declaration and beginning of war, Continental Congress realizes that they need a code of law ●How do you make federal laws for a group of separate states?

18 Articles of Confederation & Constitution ●November 1776 - Continental Congress adopts Articles in order to have a code of law ●1781 - during last years of war, all 13 colonies adopt Articles of Confederation

19 Articles of Confederation & Constitution ●Good parts of Articles: o United the states during war  Even though Doi describes them as separate o Helped establish the Treaty of Paris  treaty that ends Rev. War. in 1783 o Helped settle peaceful settlement of Western lands  Northwest Ordinance and other laws

20 Articles of Confederation & Constitution ●Problems with AoC o land claims w/ pioneers and between states  led to Northwest Ordinance of 1787 o Trade problems not addressed  British and Spanish boycotts o Difficult to pass or change legislation  9 states needed to pass laws, 13 to amend o No power to tax, print money, regulate trade  different state currency, trade laws

21 Articles of Confederation & Constitution ●More Problems o States demand changes  Economics hurt by lack of government support ● Between states and with other countries’ laws o Shay’s Rebellion  Farmers in Massachusetts rebel ● Shows weakness of military and state relations o National government too weak to enforce law, order  No national courts, agencies, military

22 Articles of Confederation & Constitution ●Need for new Constitution: o 1787 - Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia  55 American leaders, choose Washington to lead o First, they wanted to “adjust” Articles  too many changes needed to be made  instead decided to make a brand new document  different states had different ideas

23 Articles of Confederation & Constitution ●Different Plans o New Jersey Plan (Small State Plan)  each state gets one vote in congress  much more state-friendly, separate needs  one large Congress with less power o Virginia Plan (Large State Plan)  states get votes based on population  stronger central, federal government  various branches including national courts

24 Articles of Confederation & Constitution ●Compromises and New Ideas: o Two houses of Congress - “Great Compromise”  Senate - 2 reps. from each state  House of Reps. - reps. based on population o Three-Fifths Compromise  South wanted slaves to count for reps., not taxes  North said that it was unfair o Executive and Judicial Branches  Executive - President, enforcement of laws  Judicial - Supreme Court, circuit courts

25 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 ●Ordinance - an authoritative order or decree ●Where is the Northwest? o Today Today o In 1787 In 1787

26 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 ●Why did they need the NwO? o Problems with the Articles of Confederation  Who can settle in NW Territory?  Protection from native americans  two states fight over same lands  Spanish had claim to much of southern territory

27 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 ●Land developing companies asked for help o wanted to sell land to pioneers moving west o Confederation Congress saw way to make $$$ ●Thomas Jefferson makes a plan o first draft of NWO in 1784 o Congress passes his new plan in 1787

28 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 ●What did it do? o No fewer than three, or more than five, states would be formed o Admission to the Union would be available when the number of free inhabitants reached 60,000 o Civil rights and liberties be guaranteed o Education be encouraged o Slavery and involuntary servitude be prohibited

29 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 ●What new states were created? o Ohio - 1803 o Indiana - 1816 o Illinois - 1818 o Michigan - 1837 o Wisconsin - 1848

30 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 ●Why else was the NwO important? o Voting rights and office-holding o Slavery forbidden in the Northwest Territory o Individual rights preserved o Surveying and division of the land o Public land sales

31 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 ●Effects of NwO: o Northwest Indian War o massive estates came to dominate south and east o increased tension between slave/non-slave states  helped fuel Civil War in 1860s

32 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 The wisdom of abolition was clearly seen in the relative prosperity of the Midwest. On his tour of the United States -- nearly fifty years after the Ordinance -- Alexis de Tocqueville discoursed at length about the differences between Ohio and Kentucky. This article concludes with his prescient words:differences between Ohio and Kentucky "The State of Ohio is separated from Kentucky just by one river; on either side of it the soil is equally fertile, and the situation equally favorable, and yet everything is different. Here (in Ohio) a population devoured by feverish activity, trying every means to make its fortune; the population seems poor to look at, for they work with their hands, but that work is the source of riches. There (in Kentucky) is a people which makes others work for it and shows little compassion, a people without energy, mettle or the spirit of enterprise... The population of Kentucky, which has been peopled for nearly a century, grows slowly. Ohio only joined the Confederation thirty years ago and has a million inhabitants. Within those thirty years Ohio has become the entrepot for the wealth that goes up and down the Mississippi; it has opened two canals and joined the Gulf of Mexico to the North Coast; meanwhile Kentucky, older and perhaps better placed, stood still. These differences cannot be attributed to any other cause but slavery. It degrades the black population and enervates the white. Its fatal effects are recognized, and yet it is preserved and will be preserved for a long time more..."

33 Federalist and Antifederalist Papers ●The Constitutional Convention of 1787 in Philadelphia submitted a draft of the Constitution for each state to review ●Major issues were brought up between large and small states o ***federalists and anti-federalists***

34 Federalist and Antifederalist Papers ●Federal = system of government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and constituent political units ●Federalists - Those who supported the Constitution ●Anti-Federalists - Those who did not support the Constitution

35 Federalist and Antifederalist Papers ●Who was on each side? (Just a few): Federalists Anti-Federalists Alexander HamiltonPatrick Henry James Madison Samuel Adams John JayRichard Henry Lee

36 Federalist and Antifederalist Papers ●The Federalists: o wealthy, well-educated o desire for a powerful, centralized government o leaders were George Washington and Benjamin Franklin. o orderly, efficient government that could protect their economic status o controlled elections of ratifying conventions with their power and influence

37 Federalist and Antifederalist Papers ●The Anti-Federalists: o were farmers, debtors, and other middle class people o were loyal to their state governments o leaders included Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry o wanted Bill of Rights, basic liberties for public o feared the powerful central government, especially powers of taxation o believed a republican government could not rule a nation as large as America

38 Federalist and Antifederalist Papers ●Why the federalists were successful: o Hamilton, Madison, and Jay worked together  Anti-federalists did not o Federalists had money and influence  $$$ makes people agree o Celebrity leadership  Washington won the Rev. War, will be Pres.  Franklin was THE celebrity of his day because he was THE Renaissance man

39 Federalist and Antifederalist Papers ●Constitution passes: o needed 9 states to be ratified - June 1788  needed support of big states  Virginia, New York ratify in June, July 1788 o ratified by all 13 (May of 1790) ●Bill of Rights added in 1791 o Amendments 1-10, made small states happy

40 Federalist and Antifederalist Papers ●Effects of F/AF Papers: o compromise in Constitution o continued debate about federal/state governments o Bill of Rights added to Constitution o future amendments o formation of first political parties ●Ratification of Constitution

41 Bill of Right and US Constitution ●Constitution explains structure of government ●What about rights/responsibilities for citizens? ●Bill of Rights suggested in 1789 and added in 1791 to explain individual freedoms

42 Bill of Right and US Constitution ●Bill of Rights is not a new concept: ●English Bill of Rights (1689) o Magna Carta (1215) o Petition of Right (1628) ●The English Bill of Rights limited the power of the English monarchy, was written as an act of Parliament

43 Bill of Right and US Constitution ●Who wanted Bill of Rights? o Federalists came up with the idea to help Anti-feds trust and ratify the Constitution o People who wanted the guarantee of a number of personal freedoms o People who wanted to limit the government's power in judicial and other proceedings o People who wanted to reserve some powers to the states and the public

44 Bill of Right and US Constitution ●What is the Bill of Rights? o 10 amendments to the original Constitution  there are now 27 amendments, 1-10 only in BoR ●10 of the most important rights of Americans o without Bill of Rights, America would not be America

45 Bill of Right and US Constitution ●Where did idea of Bill of Rights come from? o English Bill of Rights  Most Americans of English descent at this time o Enlightenment philosophers  Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Voltaire o Experiences during British rule and Rev. War

46 Bill of Right and US Constitution ●Amendments 1-5 o 1st - Individual freedoms of expression, religion, etc. o 2nd - Right to bear arms o 3rd - Protection from housing soldiers o 4th - Protection from unlawful search o 5th - Due process of law if accused of crime

47 Bill of Right and US Constitution ●Amendments 6-10 o 6th - Right to a fair trial o 7th - Rules for civil lawsuits o 8th - Right to fair punishment if convicted of crime o 9th - Allowance of rights not specified in Constitution o 10th - Rights given and maintained by states, people

48 Bill of Right and US Constitution ●Effects of Bill of Rights o Made Anti-feds happy  They did not like the Constitution but lived with it because Bill of Rights o Precedence for more amendments  There are now 27 amendments to Constitution o Constitution is a “living document”***  Citizens, states, federal government know the laws/rights of each entity

49 Declaration of Independence Document on Library of Congress Website Homework: Read: Chapter 6, sections 1 and 3 in the United States history textbook (p.108-110, 114-116) Do: #1-5: p.110 and 116

50 Declaration of Independence ●Document on Library of Congress WebsiteDocument on Library of Congress Website ● Homework: Read: Chapter 7, sections 1 and 2 in the United States history textbook (p.130-138) Do: #1-5: p. 134, 138


52 Articles of Confederation & Constitution The document on Homework Read: chapter 7, section 3 and 4 in the United States history textbook (p. 139-144) Do: # 1-5, p. 140, 144

53 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 The Northwest Today

54 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 The Northwest Territory 1787

55 Northwest Ordinance Document on Library of Congress Website Homework: Read: Chapter 7, section 5 in the United States history textbook (p.145-149) Do: #1-5: p. 149

56 Federalist and Antifederalist Papers Federalist Papers #10 and #51 on Homework: Read: Document-Based Reading “The Northwest Ordinance” on p. 150 Do: #1-5: p. 150

57 Bill of Rights and US Constitution Bill of Rights on Homework: Do: #1-20 on p.152-153 Due: Wednesday, 2/11 (No late points)

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