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The North-West Rebellion 1885

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1 The North-West Rebellion 1885
In 1884 Gabriel Dumont traveled to Montana to convince Louis Riel to return to Manitoba. When Riel first returned to the North-West he seemed to have no thought of an armed rebellion. Riel dreamed of bringing the Aboriginal peoples, the Metis and the settlers together. They would speak to Ottawa with one voice. A petition was drawn up and sent to Ottawa. The government promised to look into the problems, but no action was taken. Louis Riel

2 The North-West Rebellion 1885
By 1885 , Riel was tired of waiting for Ottawa to take action. He once again set up his own government and armed his followers. Then he could pressure the Canadian government to provide a better deal for the citizens of the North-West. It was much riskier now that the North-West police existed and the railway could get the troops closer to Manitoba then before. Riel’s call to take up arms lost him the support of settlers. He also lost support of the Roman Catholic church when he encouraged the use of arms. Only French speaking Metis and some Aboriginal people continued to support him. Chiefs Big Bear and Poundmaker and their followers joined Riel.

3 What They Wanted What the Metis wanted
legal proof that they owned the small spaces of land where they lived. A voice in their own government. What the Aboriginal Peoples wanted food and more money in exchange for the use of their land; many people were close to starvation with the buffalo almost wiped out. What the Settlers wanted lower prices for farm machinery and for moving goods on the railroad. Higher prices for their wheat. A stronger voice for the North-West in Ottawa.

4 Troops get ready to leave to put down the Riel Rebellion
Ottawa Sends Troops After the Mounties were defeated at Duck Lake, the government sent troops immediately to put down the rebellion. But still sections of the railway were unfinished and the troops could not ride the rails to Manitoba. The railroad saw this as a good opportunity to use these events to get another loan to finish the tracks. The railway supplied sleighs for the troops, but it was still a terrible journey between the unlaid tracks. 5,000 troops and 50 mounted police were now in the West. Troops get ready to leave to put down the Riel Rebellion

5 Story of a Rebellion Fish Creek April 24th, 1885
General Middleton and 850 troops march towards Batoche. Gabriel Dumont and the Metis trap the army in a shallow ravine. Dumont slows down the army and give Riel time to gather a larger force. Batoche May 9th, 1885 Middleton’s plan is to use the Hudson’s Bay steamer Northcote. It was fitted as a gunboat. The Northcote arrives too early and the Metis set a trap. The Metis had sharpshooters hidding in pits. But after 3 days they run out of ammunition. Cut Knife Hill May 2nd, 1885 Colonel Otter decides to pursue Poundmaker. He wants to stop Poundmaker and Big Bear from combining forces and helping Riel at Batoche. Otter wants to move forward at night and attack at daybreak. But the Cree are ready for the attack. Just before they are completely surrounded Otter orders a retreat to Battleford.

6 Drawing of Louis Riel on horseback
Riel Surrenders May 15th, 1885 After the defeat at Batoche, Riel writes a letter to Middleton. He offers to surrender if the Metis are allowed to go free. Dumont tries to persuade Riel to flee with him to the U.S. Riel refuses and Dumont slips between the military patrols and enters the U.S. After hearing of Reil’s surrender, Poundmaker surrenders 8 days later. On July 2nd, 1885 Big Bear surrenders to the North-West Mounted Police. The Rebellion is over after 100 days. Drawing of Louis Riel on horseback

7 Sharpshooters return to Ontario after the end of the rebellion

8 Trials in the North-West
After the rebellion he was sentenced to 3 years in Stoney Mountain Penitentiary. After 2 years he was released and died soon after. After the rebellion he was also sentenced to 3 years in Stoney Mountain Penitentiary. After 2 years he was released but died a few months later.

9 Louis Riel on Trial Riel’s trial was held in Regina. It has been called the most important trial in Canadian history. The outcome is still debated. Six settlers were chosen as his jury. All were English speaking and of the Protestant religion. Riel’s lawyers believed the only hope for him would be to plead insanity. Riel would not accept this plea. It would be a disgrace and would have made his fellow Metis look foolish for following and insane man. A group of Metis supporters outside of Riel’s Trial

10 Riel addressing the court at his trial
Louis Riel on Trial The lawyers for the Canadian government argued that Riel was sane. They argued that no insane person could lead 700 people into a rebellion. They argued he had taken up arms against the government and was guilty of treason. The jury took only one hour and twenty minutes to find Riel guilty. He was sentenced to be hung by the neck until he was dead. Riel addressing the court at his trial

11 Riel stands outside his tent under guard during his trial.
Riel is Executed Twice Riel’s execution was delayed. Sir John A. and his government were in a tough spot. If Riel were not hanged Ontario would be outraged and his party would lose votes. If Riel is hanged Quebec would be outraged and his party would lose votes. Finally, Macdonald decided to take his chances with losing support in Quebec. On November 16th, 1885, Louis Riel was hung at the Regina jail. Riel stands outside his tent under guard during his trial.

12 Louis Riel

13 Results of the Rebellion
For the Aboriginal Peoples; 1) The only Aboriginal rebellion in Canadian history was put down by force. 2) The Aboriginal peoples realized that the government was going to enforce the treaties. They had no other choice but to move onto the reserves. 3) Those who took part in the rebellion lost their annual government payments. Their horses and ammunition were taken. For the Metis; 1) Many fled to the wilderness of northern Alberta. 2) Many took scrip worth $169-$240, but once the money was gone they would have neither money nor land. 3) The Metis nation was broken up. For French-English Relations in Canada; 1) The split was bitter. Neither side forgave the other for their views of Riel. 2) Hard feeling between Protestants and Catholics lasted long after the execution.

14 Results of the Rebellion
For Political Parties; 1) Many in Quebec stopped voting Conservative. 2) Many in Quebec started voting for the Liberal party. Especially after the Liberals elected a French Canadian, Wilfrid Laurier as their leader. For Western Canada; 1) The railroad was completed to bring troops west. 2) Settlers felt more secure moving west now that the rebellion had been put down. 3) Many of the soldiers stayed and settled in the west.

15 Chapter 14 - Spreading the Word about Canada
Advertising in Britain It was almost impossible to miss the signs and posters advertising Canada. Pamphlets, posters, slide shows and exhibitions vans all flooded the British with the advantages of moving to Canada. The government offered 65 ha of free land for homesteaders. Unfortunately, not all the advertising was true at the start. It is impossible to grow peaches in Saskatchewan. Advertising in the U.S. The government also wanted to attract American farmers. Clifford Sifton, the Minister of the Interior set up immigration agencies in Chicago, Kansas City, St. Paul and other large western cities. Lots of Americans came north because the land in the U.S. was more expensive. They received free land and had money left over to buy new machinery and horses. Plus the chance to expand their farms later on.,

16 Sifton’s Immigration Policies
Who should apply to immigrate to Canada Sifton wanted people like the Ukrainians, Poles and Germans. He believed they were solid farmers who could survive in the tough prairie environment. He arranged for agents of shipping companies to direct good settlers to Canada. They were paid $2 for each person and $5 for the head of each family they sent. The government set aside large areas of land so people from one country could settle. Who should not apply Orientals, Africans, Jewish, Italians and city dwellers were not encouraged to come. Sifton believed they would not make good farmers. This policy was known as selective immigration.

17 Immigration to Canada New arrivals going through health screeings
A pamphlet trying to entice settlers U.S. immigrants arrive Romanian immigrants

18 Wilfrid Laurier Prime Minister 1896-1911
Wilfrid Laurier was Canada’s first French Canadian Prime Minister. At age 11 his father sent him to school in an English speaking settlement. He lived with a family of Scottish Protestants. As Prime Minister his knowledge of English speaking Canada was very useful. He was a lawyer by trade. In 1887 he became leader of the Liberal Party. Prime Minister

19 Sir Wilfrid Laurier

20 Laurier House in Ottawa Laurier statue on Parliament Hill

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