Presentation on theme: "BY MASON LUFF, ISABELLA ZUZULO, OLIVIA MANGANO RUSSIA Ivan I Ivan IVIvan III."— Presentation transcript:
BY MASON LUFF, ISABELLA ZUZULO, OLIVIA MANGANO RUSSIA Ivan I Ivan IVIvan III
BACKGROUND Moscow - northern forest, less Mongol raids Settled in 1100’s 1250- primitive hamlet enclosed by a crude, long wall Took Princes of Moscow 240 years to build strong, independent state (1240- 1450) Near 3 great rivers- Volga, Dnieper, Don
BACKGROUND CONT. Control of rivers = control of nearby European Russia Moscow began rise of power under Mongols
IVAN I policies increased Moscow’s power and made it the richest principality in northeastern Russia 1325- succeeded his brother Yury as prince 1328- named “ Grand Prince ” Preferred to expand his realm by purchasing territory rather than conquering it Close alliance with the Russian Orthodox Church Made Moscow the spiritual center of the Russian lands
IVAN I CONT. Rise of Moscow under Ivan I Kalita was determined by three factors: The Moscow principality was situated in the middle of other Russian principalities An influx of working and tax- paying people who were tired of constant raids and who actively relocated to Moscow from other Russian regions A trade route from Novgorod to the Volga river.
IVAN I- GOVERNMENT Ruled 1328- 1341 Tax collector of Mongols Served well- gained office of “ Great Prince ” Had to share title w/Alexander Vasilievich of Suzdal until his death in 1331
IVAN I- GOVERNMENT CONT. Helped Golden Horde to suppress revolt in Tver’ (1327) Rewarded with coveted title of “ Yarlyk ” Title kept by princes, but not w/o struggle Gained position of chief financial agent of Golden Horde
IVAN I- BORDERS Ivan and successors enlarged kingdom Purchase War Trickery Clever marriages Plotted to win control of small surrounding states 1400’s- Moscow had become strongest Russian state under Mongols
IVAN I- RELIGION Christian Orthodox 1328- head of Russian Orthodox Church made Moscow his residence Church- major ally of princes A number of churches were built where Ivan and his decedents were buried: 1326–1327 the Assumption Cathedral
IVAN I- RELIGION CONT. 1329 the Church of Ivan the Ladder 1330 the Cathedral of the Saviour on the Borand 1333 the Cathedral of Archangel Michael
IVAN I- NOTABLES Head of Russian Orthodox Church made Moscow his reidence Alexander Vasilievich of Suzdal had to share title of great prince Predecessor- Yuri I Successor- Simeon I
IVAN I- TECHNOLOGY financed construction of stone churches in the Kremlin New policies that increased Moscow’s power and made it the richest principality in northeastern Russia
IVAN I- EVENTS 1325- succeeded brother as prince 1327- helped Golden Horde stop revolt in Tver’ 1327- awarded Yarlyk 1328- Began rule as “ Great Prince ” 1328- head of Moscow Church made Moscow his residence 1331- Alexander Vasilievich dies, Ivan gains complete title of grand prince 1341- ended rule 1348- died
IVAN I- LEGACIES Residence on the Borovitsky hill became the main part of the city 1339-1340, Ivan Kalita erected a new, bigger oaken fortress on the Borovitsky hill In Ivan’s will “the golden cap”- mentioned for the first time Cap is identified with the well- known Monomakh’s crown, the main crown's of Russian sovereigns
IVAN I- ECONOMY/TRADE tax collector of Mongols Known as Ivan “ Moneybags ” used his treasures- to purchase land in other principalities to finance construction of stone churches in the Kremlin
IVAN I- DECLINE Died while “ Grand Prince ” of Moscow Only death stopped him Died in 1340
IVAN III Under his 43 year reign (1462- 1505) the Russian state became a true empire Born in 1440 At age of 13, Constantinople fell to Turks in 1453 1472 Ivan married the niece of the last Byzantine emperor Began calling himself czar- Russian for emperor
IVAN III: RELIGION In 1453, Constantinople fell to Turks Leaders of Orthodox Church fled to Moscow By doing so they brought religion to Moscow Under Ivan the Great, Moscow flourished became center of the Eastern Orthodox Church Ivan first married when he was twelve
IVAN III- RELIGION CONT. First wife died, and Ivan later married a Byzantine princess, named Sophia. This marriage was supported by the Vatican, and the Vatican hoped it would bring Russia under the sway of the pope. This failed to happen, but Ivan seemed to think the marriage was still a good fit
IVAN III: GOVERNMENT After second marriage, Ivan developed an autocratic government built on Byzantine model Began using title of czar and autocrat. The two-headed eagle of Byzantium was added to the coat of arms of Russia. His present wife Sophia introduced Russia to customs of the Byzantine court. Russia became known as “third Rome,” successor to the might of the Byzantine Empire and Rome.
IVAN III: ECONOMY/TRADE Established new contacts with the west Gave the government a military focus and achieved and created an independent state Restored the tradition of centralized rule claiming supervision of Orthodox Churches- -this enhanced cultural and economical life -this also gave him more control over land leading to economic advantages Dispatched diplomatic missions, leading western states, developing contacts
IVAN III: TECHNOLOGY Embarked on an aggressive program of Westernization in order to leap forward out of the previous Mongol backwardness Studied shipbuilding and architecture Technical military advancements resulted in improved formations and weaponry Took over the Novgorod chronicle and used it as a propaganda tool for his regime
IVAN III: EVENTS Ivan became the grand duke of Russia without being confirmed by the Mongol Khan Ivan the Great succeeded in freeing Russia from the control of the Mongols by refusing to pay the tribute demanded by the Mongols in 1480 Helped to stop Lithuanian expansion into Russia 1453, Constantinople fell to the Turks Under Ivan, a building program took place in Moscow that saw new buildings erected in the Kremlin Ivan the Great became Russia’s first national sovereign
IVAN III: NOTABLES Succeeded by his son, Vasily III The Grand Dukes of Moscow- trying to overthrow the Mongols Sophia, Ivan’s second wife brought religion, culture and are to Moscow.
IVAN III: BORDERS Ivan the Great also conquered nearby provinces and extended Russian borders in every direction. Ivan helped to stop Lithuanian expansion into Russia. To prevent insurrection in annexed territories, Ivan transplanted the old ruling classes and replaced them with loyal Russians. He began to shift control out of the hands of the aristocratic princes in Russia.
IVAN III: DECLINE By Ivan’s death in 1505 he had tripled the territory under Moscow’s control Ruled to his death Expanded Russian territory up until his death Continued to make advancements until his death Died of old age
IVAN III: LEGACIES Ivan III was the first czar and leader of a united Russian nation Russians call him Ivan the Great First to create one united Russian state
IVAN IV- RELIGION Russian Orthodox church Christianity St. Basil’s Cathedral was built under Ivan IV’s reign to celebrate his victory over the Mongols. Religion offered a means of political control to Ivan’s government
IVAN IV- GOVERNMENT Ivan the Terrible crowned himself czar (emperor) when he was 16 years old, in 1547. Issued a code of laws in 1550. This code of laws was the revised version of the code of laws that was issued by his grandfather, Ivan III. The code of laws was called the Sudebnik. Examples of reforms: the arrest of a suspected person could be made at the permission of the community only. The representative of a community (dyak) participated in judicial office-work. The town had right to self management and distribution of taxes. The right of peasants to leave their lords after two payments: the break away fee (pozhiloye) and the transportation fee (povoz).
IVAN IV- ECONOMY/ TRADE During Ivan’s childhood and after his death in 1584, there were struggles for power among Russia’s nobles, called boyars. Ivan the terrible wanted to increase trade with Europe, so he began a war (the Livonian War) :for access to the Baltic Sea. The financing for this war, because it was so lengthy, strained Russia’s economy. Despite valiant efforts, the Russians were defeated by Lithuanian, Polish, and Swedish armies. Because nothing was earned from that war because of their loss, Russia’s economy was left unstable.
IVAN IV- TECHNOLOGY Technology AdvancementUse/ what is it??? BardicheAxe/ polearm Boyar hatFur hat worn by the boyars Gulyay- gorodCovered wagon Russian ovenOven/ stove
IVAN IV- EVENTS (TIMELINE) 1530- Ivan is born! 1533- At age 3, Ivan comes to the throne as Grand Duke of Moscow 1538- Ivan’s mother dies supposedly of poison- boyars keep him “prisoner” (bad clothes & food) 1547- Ivan, 16 years old, had himself crowned czar. 1550- Code of laws- Sudebnik 1547-1560- Ivan’s “good period”: got married to Anastasia Romanov, and had many victories against the Mongols 1560- Anastasia dies and Ivan’s “bad period” begins: revenge against boyars= oprichniki (police force)kill boyars harshly. 1581- during a brawl, Ivan accidentally kills his older son (and heir), leaving his younger, and more stupid son as heir to the throne. 1584- Ivan the Terrible (Ivan IV) dies
IVAN IV- NOTABLES Even though Ivan IV had many accomplishments during his good period, he was better remembered for his bad period. Ivan is also strongly remembered for killing his son when they were having a heated argument. Ivan used to always carry around a pointed staff, and in the midst of their argument, he punctured his son’s head with the staff.
IVAN IV- BORDERS Baltic Sea to the West Siberia to the East Mongolia to the South Ural Mountains to the North
IVAN IV- DECLINE Ordered the murder of St. Philip of Moscow in 156.9 Pillaged and destroyed the city of Great Novgorod and murdered hundreds of its citizens in 1570. Wanted to abdicate when he accidentally killed his eldest son Ivan. Finally lost the battle for Livonia in 1582, where troops had battled since 1560. Lost the Baltic Seaboard during his reign and it was not regained for 150 years.
IVAN IV- LEGACIES Destroyed the Mongols on the Volga River Commissioned the building of St. Basil’s Cathedral to celebrate his defeat of the Mongols. Organized a code of laws in 1550. Expanded Russian land to the east and southeast and was first Russian czar to attack the Crimea. Sent envoys to explore and colonize Siberia
CURRENT EVENT Syrian troops ‘attack Damascus suburbs’ Summary: The article I chose was about the Syrian troops opening fire on their own citizens. Most occurrences were happened after the UNSMIS left (UN Supervision Mission in Syria). At least 430 people were killed Theme Peace and Security- because it involves terrorism when the troops opened fire on people from their own country
CURRENT EVENT Relation to class Ivan IV organized the oprichniki, who were ordered to kill traitors, boyars, or anybody suspicious. Ivan IV is like the President of Syria, Bashar al-Assad, because they are both basically turning against their own country and throwing it into ruins. Reaction I was very appalled when I discovered this article because I thought it was extremely odd how troops, people who are supposed to save citizens, were instead turning against and killing them.
WORKS CITED "Ivan, III." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Gale World History In Context. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. "Ivan, III, The Great." Historic World Leaders. Gale, 1994. Gale World History In Context. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. “World History Perspectives on the Past. Evanston: A HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY, 1997. Print.
WORKS CITED DIMNIK, MARTIN. "Grand Prince of Vladimir and Moscow Ivan I." Encyclopedia of Russian History. Ed. James R. Millar. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. Gale Biography In Context. Web. 26 Apr. 2012 FROST, ROBERT I. "Northern Wars." Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. Ed. Jonathan Dewald. Vol. 4. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004. 296-299. Gale World History In Context. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. “World History Perspectives on the Past. Evanston: A HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY, 1997. Print.
WORKS CITED "Ivan, IV." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Gale World History In Context. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. "Ivan, IV (1530-1584)." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Gale World History In Context. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. http://www.nndb.com/people/933/000092657/ http://franklaughter.tripod.com/cgi- bin/histprof/misc/ivan.html