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2 ROOTS AND PREDECESSORS Ancient time: Rhetoric - the art of creating speeches and Poetics (process of artistic creation) Aristotle “Poetics” 320 B.C. – epic drama and lyrics, Socrates - Dialectics ( the art of creating a dialogue) Poetics developed into Literary Criticism; Rhetoric and Dialectics – into Stylistics In ancient Rome: CAESAR and analogistsCICERO and anomalists Stressed regularity and system rules Focused on facts and data Their aim was to create simple clear and straightforward speeches Seneca and Tacituts Aimed at creation of flowery language Used unnatural syntactic patterns, artificial sentence structures Created anomalies on all language levels Their true message was secondary to the form of presentation

3 MIDDLE AGES AND THE NEW AGE Anomalistic rhetoric of Cicero (aesthetically attractive) became a model way of public speaking Influence of ancient India – brevity of speech Distinction between FORM and CONTENT The language of science, culture, administration (Latin) was different from the language of common people Romanticism: style referred to written form of language Nicolas Boileau L’Art poetique (1674) language and parole 1. stylus altus (works of art) 2. stylus mediocris (the style of high society) 3. stylus humilis (the style of low society and comedies) 19 century W.von Humboldt “ Uber die Verschiedenheit des menschlichen Sprachbaues..” functional styles Prague Linguistic Circle (1926)

4 PLAN 1. The Object, Objectives and Units of Stylistics, its Methodological Basis. Structural and Functional Approaches. 2. Stylistics and Other Sciences. Theory of Information. Major Scholars and Landmarks of Stylistics Development as a Science. 3. The Main Terms, Categories and Notions of Stylistics. 4. Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices. Expressiveness and Emotiveness. 5. Types of Meaning. Meaning and Sense. Meaning from a Stylistic Point of View 6. Functional styles and varieties of a language

5 LITERATURE 1. Алексеев А.Я. Сопоставительная стилістика. – Д.: НГУ, Galperin I.R. Stylistics.- M.: Higher School, 1977, p.1 3. Мороховский А.Н. Стилистика английского языка.-Киев: Вища школа, Арнольд И.В. Стилистика современного английского языка.- М.: Просвещение, Дубенко О. Ю. Порівняльна стилістика англійської та української мов. – Вінниця: Нова книга, Єфімов Л.П. Стилістика англійської мови. – Вінниця: Нова книга, 2004

6 Stylistics – is a branch of general linguistics. 2 objectives Investigation of special language media which secure the desirable effect of the utterance – they are called stylistic devices(SD) and expressive means(EM). Stylistics studies the nature, functions and structure of SDs and EMs The second field of investigation is concerned with certain types of texts which due to the choice and arrangement of language means are distinguished by the pragmatic aspect of communication. These types are called functional styles of language.

7 DEFINITION stylistics - is a science, a branch of linguistics, investigating principles and the results of selection and use of lexical, grammatical, phonetic and other language means for the transfer of thoughts and emotions under di Lat - stylus - a stick made of material for writing. Stylistics - from French " Stylistique " - instrument for Writing.fferent circumstances of communication

8 Landmarks 1. The first discussion on the problems of style “Issues of linguistics” in Conference on Style - Indiana University, 1958 publication of its materials in 1960 under the editorship of Thomas Sebeok 3. Conference on Style, Moscow State Pedagogical Institute of Foreign Languages in Symposium, Italy, Proceedings under the editorship of Prof. Chatman in American journals, Illinois University “Style” and “Language and Style”.

9 XX century Germany New Idealists: B.Croce, K.Vossler etc. developed individualistic and psychoanalytical approach to language French School of Charles Bally and F. de Saussure (Geneva) – expressive stylistics STRUCTURALISM The Prague Linguistic Circle – Jakobson, Trubetskoi, Mathesius and Copenhagen Structuralistic school – Hjelmslev, in the US – Sapir and Blooomfield 1920s Russia FORMALISM – the focus of the text analysis was on the form (HOW) not content (WHAT) Roman Jakobson, Tynianov and Vinogradov

10 Main representatives Michael Riffatere - theory of information: Denotative and Connotative Meaning Decoding stylistics - I.V.Arnold Zhirmunsky(1921), Vinogradov (1923), Tynianov (1924) - literary trend of formalism Galperin, Lotman, Kukharenko, Morokhovsky Darbyshire 1971 “A Grammar of Style” Enkvist “Linguistic Stylistics” 1973

11 Main Terms, Categories and Notions STYLE The correspondence between thought and language expression An individual manner of making use of language The set of rules how to write a composition The aesthetic function of language Expressive means in language Synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea Emotional coloring in language A system of special devices called stylistic devices The splitting of the literary language into separate systems called styles The individual manner of an author in making use of language

12 STYLE “style is the man himself “(Buffon 18thc.) “Style is depth” Darbyshire “style is deviation” Enkvist “style is the result of an author’s success in compelling language to conform to his mode of experience (Middleton Murry) “Style is a contextually restricted linguistic variation” (Enkvist) Style is a selection of non-distinctive features of language(Bloomfield) Style is simply synonymous with form or expression(Benedetto Croce) “structures, sequences and patterns which extend beyond the boundaries of individual sentences - style (Archibald Hill )

13 Individual style and idiolect Individual style implies the peculiarities of a writer’s individual manner of using language means to achieve the effect he desires: components of individual style - composition of phrasal units rhythm and melody of utterances system of imagery preference for definite stylistic devices and their correlation with neutral language media interdependence of the language means employed by the author and those characteristic to his personages. The speech of any individual, which is characterized by particular elements, is called an idiolect that reveals his breeding and education

14 " A VERY SHORT STORY” by Ernest Hemingway One hot evening in Padua they carried him up onto the roof and he could look out over the top of the town. There were chimney swifts in the sky. After a while it got dark and the searchlights came out. The others went down and took the bottles with them. He and Luz could hear them below on the balcony. Luz sat on the bed. She was cool and fresh in the hot night…. She loved him as always, but she realized now it was only a boy and girl love. She hoped he would have a great career, and believed in him absolutely. She knew it was for the best. The major did not marry her in the spring, or any other time. Luz never got an answer to the letter to Chicago about it. A short time after he contracted gonorrhea from a sales girl in a loop department store while riding in a taxicab through Lincoln Park.

15 James Joyce “Ulysses” INELUCTABLE MODALITY OF THE VISIBLE: AT LEAST THAT IF NO MORE, thought through my eyes. Signatures of all things I am here to read, seaspawn and seawrack, the nearing tide, that rusty boot. Snotgreen, bluesilver, rust: coloured signs. Limits of the diaphane. But he adds: in bodies. Then he was aware of them bodies before of them coloured. How? By knocking his sconce against them, sure. Go easy. Bald he was and a millionaire, maestro di color che sanno. Limit of the diaphane in. Why in? Diaphane, adiaphane. If you can put your five fingers through it, it is a gate, if not a door. Shut your eyes and see. Stephen closed his eyes to hear his boots crush crackling wrack and shells. You are walking through it howsomever. I am, a stride at a time. A very short space of time through very short times of space. Five, six: the nacheinander. Exactly: and that is the ineluctable modality of the audible. Open your eyes. No. Jesus! If I fell over a cliff that beetles o'er his base, fell through the nebeneinander ineluctably. I am getting on nicely in the dark. My ash sword hangs at my side. Tap with it: they do. My two feet in his boots are at the end of his legs, nebeneinander. Sounds solid: made by the mallet of Los Demiurgos. Am I walking into eternity along Sandymount strand? Crush, crack, crick, crick.

16 NORM, expressiveness and emotiveness Norm – is an invariant, which should embrace all variable phonemic, morphological, lexical, and syntactic patterns with their typical properties circulating in the language at a definite period of time. language-as-a-system and language-in-action, language and speech (discourse), lange and parole. Expressiveness – in etymological sense is a kind of intensification of the utterance (or a part of it). Emotiveness - reveals emotions of the writer or a speaker by not directly manifesting their emotions but by echoing real feelings, designed to awaken co-experience on the part of the reader

17 Emotional synonyms BIG – enormous, huge, large, gigantic, great, immense, monstrous, macroscopic, mammoth, tremendous SMALL – little, tiny, minute, miniature, miniscule, undersized, diminutive, lilliputian, midget, petite BEAUTIFUL - fair, fine, good-looking, handsome, splendid, gorgeous, lovely, picturesque, pretty, scenic, stunning UGLY – disfigured, evil-looking, grotesque, monstrous, hideous, repulsive, unsightly INTERESTING - absorbing, engrossing, fascinating, gripping, riveting, entertaining, amusing, intriguing BORING - boring, deadening, dull, irksome, slow, tedious, tiresome, wearisome, uninteresting

18 Expressiveness vs emotiveness

19 Expressive means Expressive means are those phonetic, morphological, word- building, lexical, phraseological, syntactical forms, which exist in language-as-a-system for the purpose of logical or emotional intensification of the utterance. Phonetic EM - pitch, melody, stress, pausation, drawling out, whispering and sing-song manner Morphological EM - number, Historical Present, “shall” in the 2 or 3 person, demonstrative pronouns, verbals Lexical EM - different affixes: e.g. diminutive suffixes – dearie, sonny, auntie, streamlet. At the lexical level expressiveness can also be rendered by the words possessing inner expressive charge - interjections, epithets, slang and vulgar, poetic or archaic words, set phrases, idioms, catchwords, proverbs and sayings

20 If you can keep your head when all about you Are losing theirs and blaming it on you; If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, But make allowance for their doubting too: If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, Or, being lied about, don't deal in lies, Or being hated don't give way to hating, And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise; If you can dream - and not make dreams your master; If you can think - and not make thoughts your aim, If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster And treat those two impostors just the same: If you can bear to hear the truth you've spoken Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools, Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken, And stoop and build 'em up with worn- out tools; R.KIPLING ‘IF’ If you can make one heap of all your winnings And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss, And lose, and start again at your beginnings, And never breathe a word about your loss: If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew To serve your turn long after they are gone, And so hold on when there is nothing in you Except the Will which says to them: "Hold on!“ If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, Or walk with Kings - nor lose the common touch, If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you, If all men count with you, but none too much: If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds' worth of distance run, Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it, And - which is more - you'll be a Man, my son!

21 Harvey Keitel recites “IF” by R.Kipling

22 Stylistic devices Stylistic device is a conscious and intentional intensification of some typical structural and/or semantic property of a language unit (neutral or expressive) promoted to a generalized status thus becoming a generative model. SDs display an application of 2 meanings: the ordinary one (already established in language-as-a-system) and a special – imposed on the unit by the author (or content), a meaning, which appears in language-in-action Stylistic devices (tropes, figures of speech) unlike expressive means are not language phenomena. They are formed in speech and most of them do not exist out of context. According to principles of their formation, stylistic devices are grouped into phonetic, lexico- semantic and syntactic types. Stylistic devices are the result of revaluation of neutral words, word-combinations and syntactic structures. Stylistic devices are studied by stylistic semasiology.

23 Types of context Linguistic context is the encirclement of a language unit by other language units in speech. Such encirclement makes the meaning of the unit clear and unambiguous. It is especially important in case with polysemantic words. Microcontext is the context of a single utterance (sentence). Macrocontext is the context of a paragraph in a text. Megacontext is the context of a book chapter, a story or the whole book. An extralingual (situational) context is formed by extralingual conditions in which communication takes place : physical context and abstract context. Temporal or chronological context, psychological context

24 Linguistic micro context

25 Extralinguistic context

26 Speech and writing (oral and written language varieties) Speech is normally a continuous stream of sound. Conversations are often accompanied by other sign systems which aid understanding. These might be physical gestures, facial expressions, even bodily posture. Meaning in speech is commonly conveyed by tone and other non-verbal means such as irony. Speech quite commonly includes false starts, repetition, hesitation Writing is the use of visual symbols which act as a code for communication between individuals or groups. The code of written language consists of letter- forms (the alphabet) used to form a visual image of spoken words. Words are formed in accordance with the conventions of spelling, then combined according to the rules of syntax to form meaningful statements.

27 Types of Meaning primary (denotative) meaning and additional (connotative) meaning/ objective and emotive planes Connotative meaning may be of 4 types: 1.functional (reflecting the sphere of usage of the word) – formal/informal – dear Sir/ Hey, dude 2.evaluative (positive, negative or neutral) – ambitious/pushy/goal-oriented 3.emotive (rendering the attitude of the speaker) – It’s fabulous! Disgusting! Oh boy! Tut tut! 4.expressive (containing an image of pragmatic value) – to express what is really meant stylistic meaning as distinguished from lexical one, which is representing primary information, is based on the secondary (additional) information.

28 Types of Meaning Lexical meaning is given explicitly while stylistic meaning is always implied. Lexical meaning is relatively stable, and stylistic meaning is liable to change Grammatical meaning reflects the relations between words or some forms of words or constructions, it can also be called structural meaning. All the words have grammatical meaning simply because they belong to some language and have their place in it Logical, emotive and nominal meaning Logical meaning (synonymously called referential or direct) is the precise naming of a feature, an idea, a phenomenon or an object. There can be primary and secondary logical meanings. All the meanings fixed by the dictionaries comprise what is called the semantic structure of a word

29 Types of Meaning Emotive meaning also materializes the concept of a word but it has reference to the feelings and emotions of a speaker towards the thing. It names the object by evaluating it. Usually we deal with contextual emotive meaning. But some classes of words – interjections, exclamations, and swearwords – are direct carriers of emotive meaning. Interjections have even lost completely their logical meaning: e.g. alas, oh, ah, pooh, darn, gosh. Nominal meaning steps in when we deal with the words serving the purpose of singling out one definite and singular object of a whole class of similar objects. These words are classified by grammarians as proper nouns as different from common nouns

30 Functional styles of language The object of linguostylistics as the study of the nature, functions and structure of SDs and EMs and the study of the functional styles of language. Functional style (FS) may be defined as a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim of communication FSs are sometimes called registers or discourses: the language of belles-lettres the language of publicistic literature the language of press/media the language of scientific prose the language of official documents I.V. Arnold mentions four styles: poetic style, scientific style, newspaper style, colloquial style.

31 Linguistic stylistics and literary stylistics The old man is dead. Старик умер. The gentleman well advanced in years attained the termination of his terrestrial existence. Старец скончался The ole bean kicked the bucket. Старый хрыч подох Linguistic stylistics and literary stylistics are two separate and at the same time interconnected branches of stylistics Linguistic stylistics studies functional styles of a language and the elements of language from the point of view of their ability to express and cause emotions Literary stylistics studies expressive means and stylistic devices characteristic for a definite work of art, man of letter, literary movement, trend or epoch, and factors influencing the expressiveness of language.

32 Structure of Stylistics Phoneme Morpheme Lexeme Sentence Paragraph Text Stylistic phonetics Stylistic morphology Stylistic lexicology Stylistic syntax Connection of stylistics with other branches of linguistics Stylistics and phonetics: Phonetics studies sounds, articulation, rhythmics and intonation. Stylistics concentrates on expressive sound combinations, intonational and rhythmic patterns. Stylistics and lexicology: Lexicology describes words, their origin, development, semantic and structural features. Stylistics also deals with words, but only those which are expressive in language or in speech. Stylistics and grammar: Grammar describes regularities of building words, word- combinations, sentences and texts. Stylistics restricts itself to those grammar regularities, which make language units expressive.


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