Presentation on theme: "Early Marriage in Egypt: Field Research El Nadeem Center 18- June- 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Early Marriage in Egypt: Field Research El Nadeem Center 18- June- 2014
Introduction There has been increasing concerns regarding this issue, with the rise of the current political Islamists after 2011 revolution and the escalating discussions in the media on removing the minimum age of marriage. Understand opinions on the preferred age of marriage and reasons behind it. Measure knowledge regarding child law and the legal age of marriage.
1091 surveys were carried out in almost 15 different governorates in Egypt 58% Urban areas and 42% Rural areas. Sampling type: Random sampling A qualitative and quantitative survey Opinions Knowledge
Participants Demographics The majority of the participants in this research where females, constituting 64% (698 participants) and the males constituted 36%. The ages of the participants ranged from under 15 to above 60, the majority, 34% were between the ages of 20 and 30. the majority of the participants were married (48%) or single (42%) and the rest are engaged, widowed or divorced.
Participants Demographics Cont. Education:
Participants Demographic Cont. Occupation:
Participants Demographic Cont. Age of Marriage of Mothers:
Preferred Age of Marriage of Girls
Out of 136 mothers married at the age of 18 or less (85.2%) of the mothers who were married before the age of 18 chose differently for their daughters and only 14.8% would make the same choices for their daughters
Preferred Age of Marriage of Girls Reasons: 1. Maturity 2. Responsibility 3. Finishing her education 4. Tetseter Reasons for less than 18: a girl would get married anyway so why wait? Its her destiny because its an appropriate age to protect her from perversion tetseter to decrease her economic pressure from the family
Preferred Age of Marriage of Boys
Reasons: Mature Financially ready Responsibility Done with education and military requirements Reasons for Under 18: In his youth, still young Prevent him from perversion To be able to raise his children
Knowledge of Cases of Early Marriage and Early Divorce 69% did know of girls married less than the age of 18. When asked whether they knew of cases divorced less than 18 years old, 34% said yes and 66% said no.
Reasons Behind Divorce Less than 18 Lack of responsibility and experience of partners directly related to age. Lack of compatibility and understanding between partners. Bad treatment either by the husband or his family.
Consequences of Divorce Less than 18 Only 10 participants said the girls did not face any problems Challenges with getting her legitimate rights. Social stigma. Unstable situation for children.
Benefits of Early Marriage 644 said there are no benefits for early marriage. The main reason was “EL Sotra” Have a small age gap between her and her children Reproductive reasons Young and healthy Be Responsible Early
Drawbacks of Early Marriage Lack of awareness and maturity Would not be able to handle responsibility Higher probability of divorce Will not be able to continue her education Physical and Psychological consequences of giving birth and housework. 15 participant did not see any drawbacks to early marriage.
Effects of Early Marriage When asked if Early marriage has an effect on pregnancy and giving birth, 70% said yes, 9% said no and 21% said they do not know. Bleeding Abortion Complication of birth that could affect the child Mother’s death while giving birth Inability to raise children Psychological problems 227 participant said they know it has consequences but has no idea what they are.
The Effect of Early Marriage on Education
The Effect of Early Marriages on Chances of Work
If a Groom Proposes to you While Studying
Why Continue her Education
Motives Behind Early Marriage
Traditionally, Who Takes the Final Decision in Girl’s Marriage?
Ideally, Who Should Take the Final Decision?
Characteristics of the Groom
If a Groom 20 Years Older Proposed?
Knowledge of Age of Marriage of Girls in the Egyptian Law
Knowledge of Age of Marriage of Boys in the Egyptian Law
Knowledge of Child Law
Out of the 47% who said yes, 70 participants (14%) of those said they do not know what the law states. Knowledge of What the Law States: Child’s right in health and education. Prevents the child from violence. Organizes and prevents child labour and street children.
Authorization of the Marriage
Pass the Age of Marriage
The Reasons for Fear of Getting Married in an Old Age Fear of being a spinster Social pressure Prevents her younger sisters from getting married Fear of living alone Traditions Reproductive reasons Characteristics of the groom
Conclusion The majority of participants actually prefer the age of marriage to be over 21 and not less than 18 This means that the opinions of the majority of the participants from the different backgrounds fits with what the current law states. Education and work experience are important factors contributing to the girls maturity and responsibility which are the main prerequisites that prepares her for marriage.
Conclusion Cont. Motives behind early marriage are not mainly related to the economic situation and poverty. It is actually mainly a result of traditions. Traditions here are represented mainly through the term El sotra. Those socially constructed concepts need to be analyzed further, deconstructed and challenged as they are the core of several forms of violence against women.
Conclusion Cont. Current laws, especially the child’s law needs to be amended so those who are involved in the criminal act of early marriage could get prosecuted, as neither the family nor the husband get any punishment for this criminal act. Increase the awareness of the community on the consequences. Work more on emphasizing the importance of education as a prevention tool to the different forms of violence against women and work on the different policies to prevent early marriage.