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SS 2013 - Termin 21Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung I Wie funktioniert Wissenschaft? - Publizieren, Artikel, Konferenzen - Persönliche Fähigkeiten,

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Presentation on theme: "SS 2013 - Termin 21Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung I Wie funktioniert Wissenschaft? - Publizieren, Artikel, Konferenzen - Persönliche Fähigkeiten,"— Presentation transcript:

1 SS Termin 21Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung I Wie funktioniert Wissenschaft? - Publizieren, Artikel, Konferenzen - Persönliche Fähigkeiten, Fertigkeiten - meine eigene Persönlichkeit, Networking, Personenführung II What does Research mean? - Topic: what is a good topic for research? - How does one do research? - How do research groups operate? - How can I select the right research group for me? III Wissenschaftliche Ethik - Korrekte Dokumentation von Forschungsergebnissen - Geheimhaltung - Publizieren: Autorenliste, korrektes Zitieren - Wissenschaftliches Fehlverhalten anhand von Beispiele IV Karriereformen in der Wissenschaft bzw. Industrie - Was bedeutet eine wissenschaftliche Karriere? - Arbeitsalltag in der Industrie oder Start-up-Unternehmen - Typische Hierarchien, Stipendiensysteme - Wie bekomme ich Empfehlungsschreiben? Organisation wissenschaftlicher Forschung (II)

2 SS Termin 22Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung from?/ article Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation by Steven Johnson 1. Be patient 2. Collect hunches ready to be stitched together later 3. Connect your hunches with the hunches of others 4. Good ideas come from not just many but many diverse minds 5. Make space for hunches to incubate Organisation wissenschaftlicher Forschung

3 SS Termin 23Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung From The Basics A Doctor of Philosophy degree, abbreviated Ph.D., is the highest academic degree anyone can earn (VH: in US. In other countries, one can put a habilitation on top). Because earning a Ph.D. requires extended study and intense intellectual effort, less than one percent of the population attains the degree (VH: in US). Society shows respect for a person who holds a Ph.D. by addressing them with the title ``Doctor''. To earn a Ph.D., one must accomplish two things. (1) One must master a specific subject completely. (2) One must extend the body of knowledge about that subject. What means doing a PhD?

4 SS Termin 24Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Usually, in preparing for Ph.D. work in a given field, a student must earn both a Bachelor's and Master's degree in that field or in a closely related field. To master a subject, a student searches the published literature to find and read everything that has been written about the subject. In scientific disciplines, a student begins by studying general reference works such as text books. Eventually, the student must also search scholarly journals, the publications that scientists use to exchange information and record reports of their scientific investigations. Mastering a Subject

5 SS Termin 25Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung The essence of a Ph.D., the aspect that distinguishes Ph.D. study from other academic work, can be summarized in a single word: research. To extend knowledge, one must explore, investigate, and contemplate. … research is more than mere experiments -- it means interpretation and deep understanding. For Computer Scientists, research means searching to uncover the principles that underlie digital computation and communication. A researcher must discover new techniques that aid in building or using computational mechanisms. Researchers look for new abstractions, new approaches, new algorithms, new principles, or new mechanisms. To complete a Ph.D., each student must present results from their research to the faculty in a lengthy, formal document called a dissertation (or thesis). The student must then submit their dissertation to the faculty and defend their work in an oral examination. Extending Knowledge

6 SS Termin 26Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung 1. Do you want a research career? Before enrolling in a Ph.D. program, you should carefully consider your long-term goals. Because earning a Ph.D. is training for research, you should ask yourself whether a research position is your long-term goal. If it is, a Ph.D. degree is the standard path to your chosen career (a few people have managed to obtain a research position without a Ph.D., but they are the exception, not the rule). If, however, you want a non-research career, a Ph.D. is definitely (VH: likely) not for you. A few questions to ask yourself

7 SS Termin 27Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung 2. Do you want an academic position? A Ph.D. is the de facto ``union card'' for an academic position. Although it is possible to obtain an academic position without a Ph.D., the chances are low. Major universities require each member of their faculty to hold a Ph.D. and to engage in research activities. Why? To insure that the faculty have sufficient expertise to teach advanced courses and to force faculty to remain current in their chosen field. … A few questions to ask yourself

8 SS Termin 28Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung 3. Do you have what it takes? It is difficult for an individual to assess their own capabilities. The following guidelines and questions may be of help. Intelligence: In your college and graduate courses, were you closer to the top of your class or the bottom? Time: Are you prepared to tackle a project larger than any you have undertaken before? You must commit to multiple years of hard work. Are you willing to reduce or forego other activities? A few questions to ask yourself

9 SS Termin 29Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Creativity: Research discoveries often arise when one looks at old facts in a new way. Do you shine when solving problems? Do you like ``brain teasers'' and similar puzzles? Are you good at solving them? In school, did you find advanced mathematics enjoyable or difficult? Intense curiosity: Have you always been compelled to understand the world around you and to find out how things work? A natural curiosity makes research easier. … Do you have what it takes?

10 SS Termin 210Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Adaptability: Most students are unprepared for Ph.D. study. They find it unexpectedly different than course work. Suddenly thrust into a world in which no one knows the answers, students sometimes flounder. Can you adapt to new ways of thinking? Can you tolerate searching for answers even when no one knows the precisequestions? Do you have what it takes?

11 SS Termin 211Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Self-motivation: By the time a student finishes an undergraduate education, they have become accustomed to receiving grades for each course each semester. In a Ph.D. program, work is not divided neatly into separate courses, professors do not partition tasks into little assignments, and the student does not receive a grade for each small step. Are you self-motivated enough to keep working toward a goal without day-to-day encouragement? Do you have what it takes?

12 SS Termin 212Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Competitiveness: If you choose to enroll in a Ph.D. program, you will compete with others at the top. More important, once you graduate, your peers will include some of the brightest people in the world. You will be measured and judged in comparison to them. Are you willing to compete at the Ph.D. level? Do you have what it takes?

13 SS Termin 213Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Maturity: Compared to coursework, which is carefully planned by a teacher, Ph.D. study has less structure. You will have more freedom to set your own goals, determine your daily schedule, and follow interesting ideas. Are you prepared to accept the responsibility that accompanies the additional freedoms? Your success or failure in Ph.D. research depends on it. Do you have what it takes?

14 SS Termin 214Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Students sometimes enroll in a Ph.D. program for the wrong reasons. After a while, such students find that the requirements overwhelm them. Before starting one should realize that a Ph.D. is not: Prestigious in itself A guarantee of respect for all your opinions A goal in itself A job guarantee A practical way to impress your family or friends Something you can ``try'' to find out how smart you are The only research topic you will ever pursue Easier than entering the work force Better than the alternatives A way to make more money One must choose research because one loves it; a Ph.D. is not the optimum road to wealth. A few warnings

15 SS Termin 215Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Despite all our warnings, we (the CS-faculty at Purdue) are proud that we earned Ph.D. degrees and proud of our research accomplishments. If you have the capability and interest, a research career can bring rewards unequaled in any other profession. You will meet and work with some of the brightest people on the planet. You will reach for ideas beyond your grasp, and in so doing extend your intellectual capabilities. You will solve problems that have not been solved before. You will explore concepts that have not been explored. You will uncover principles that change the way people use computers (VH: in our case, that change the way how people use / interpret biological data). The good news

16 SS Termin 216Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung A colleague summed up the way many researchers feel about their profession. When asked why he spent so many hours in the lab, he noted that the alternatives were to go home, where he would do the same things that millions of others were doing, or to work in his lab, where he could discover things that no other human had ever discovered. The smile on his face told the story: for him, working on research was sheer joy. Also important (for me): independence The joy of research

17 SS Termin 217Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Rule 1: Drop Modesty...“Say to yourself: ‘Yes, I would like to do first-class work.' Our society frowns on people who set out to do really good work. But you should say to yourself: ‘Yes, I would like to do something significant.'” Rule 2: Prepare Your Mind Many think that great science is the result of good luck, but luck is nothing but the marriage of opportunity and preparation.... Rule 3: Age Is Important Einstein did things very early, and all the “quantum mechanic fellows,” as well as most mathematicians and astrophysicists, were “disgustingly young” when they did their best work.... In the fields of music, politics, and literature, the protagonists often produce what we consider their best work late in life. Ten Rules for Doing Your Best Research

18 SS Termin 218Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Rule 4: Brains Are Not Enough, You Also Need Courage Great scientists have more than just brainpower.... “Once you get your courage up and believe that you can do important things, then you can. If you think you can't, almost surely you are not going to. Great scientists will go forward under incredible circumstances; they think and continue to think.” Rule 5: Make the Best of Your Working Conditions … people are often most productive when working conditions are bad. … “It is a poor workman who blames his tools—the good man gets on with the job, given what he's got, and gets the best answer he can.” Ten Rules for Doing Your Best Research

19 SS Termin 219Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Rule 6: Work Hard and Effectively Most great scientists have tremendous drive... … Given two people with exactly the same ability, the one person who manages day in and day out to get in one more hour of thinking will be tremendously more productive over a lifetime.” But … hard work alone is not enough—it must be applied sensibly. Rule 7: Believe and Doubt Your Hypothesis at the Same Time Great scientists tolerate ambiguity. They believe the theory enough to go ahead; they doubt it enough to notice the errors and faults so they can step forward and create the new replacement theory... Ten Rules for Doing Your Best Research

20 SS Termin 220Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Rule 8: Work on the Important Problems in Your Field It is surprising but true that the average scientist spends almost all his time working on problems that he believes not to be important and not to be likely to lead to important results. By contrast, those seeking to do great work must ask: “What are the important problems of my field? What important problems am I working on?” “… If you want to do great work, you clearly must work on important problems.... Ten Rules for Doing Your Best Research

21 SS Termin 221Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Rule 9: Be Committed to Your Problem Scientists who are not fully committed to their problem seldom produce first-class work. To a large extent, creativity comes out of the subconscious. If you are deeply immersed in and committed to a topic, day after day, your subconscious has nothing to do but work on your problem. … when you have a real important problem you don't let anything else get the center of your attention—you keep your thoughts on the problem... Ten Rules for Doing Your Best Research

22 SS Termin 222Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Rule 10: Leave Your Door Open Keeping the door to your office closed makes you more productive in the short term. But ten years later, somehow you may not quite know what problems are worth working on, and all the hard work you do will be “sort of tangential” in importance. He (or she) who leaves the door open gets all kinds of interruptions, but he (or she) also occasionally gets clues as to what the world is and what might be important... people who work with doors closed often work harder. (But) somehow they seem to work on slightly the wrong thing …. Ten Rules for Doing Your Best Research

23 SS Termin 223Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung VHelms: Rule 11: Pick up successful strategies from others, avoid their mistakes. Rule 12: Accept advice from others (your friends, mentor, reviewers ….) Ten Rules for Doing Your Best Research

24 SS Termin 224Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Rule 1: Let Passion Be the Driving Force of Your Success … your heart and then your head should dictate what thesis project makes sense to embark on. Doing your best work requires that you are passionate about what you are doing. Graduate school is an investment of up to a seven-year commitment (in US, in Germany 3-5 years) a significant chunk of your life. Use the time wisely. … Research is very different from simply taking courses. If you do not feel excited about doing research and the project selected, do not do it; reevaluate your career decisions. Ten Simple Rules for Graduate Students

25 SS Termin 225Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Finding the right mentor can be hard since it is not always possible to know the kind of mentoring that is going to work best for you until you actually start doing research. Some of us like to work independently, others like significant feedback and supervision. Talk to other students in the laboratory and get their impressions of how the principle investigator's mentoring works for them. In a large laboratory, chances are you will get less direct mentoring from the principle investigator. In that case, other senior scientists in the laboratory become important. What mentoring are they likely to offer? Judge, as best you can, if the overall environment will work for you. Rule 2: Select the Right Mentor, Project, and Laboratory

26 SS Termin 226Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung A key element is the standing of your mentor in his or her scientific field. When you graduate, the laboratory you graduate from is going to play a role in determining what opportunities exist for your postdoctoral work, either in academia, industry, or other sectors. Your proposed mentor should be very enthusiastic about the project you discuss. If he or she is not, you have the wrong mentor and/or project. At the same time, beware that such enthusiasm, however senior the mentor, may be misplaced as far as your interests are concerned. Gauge the novelty of the research project and potential for high-quality publications by doing your own background check through reading previously published research and talking to other scientists in related areas. … Ten Simple Rules for Graduate Students

27 SS Termin 227Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Regardless of your initial work habits and how much you depend on your mentor, eventually you will have to be more independent than when you started graduate school. The earlier you start on that path to independence the better. Independence will play a critical part in your career as an innovative scientist. As much as possible define your own research project with a view to make a significant and unique scientific contribution. (VH: You should read a lot of good papers!) Rule 3: Independent Thinking is a Mark of a True Scientist

28 SS Termin 228Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Take the time to meet your own needs. Graduate school is highly demanding, both mentally and physically. Your health comes first, spend the time being healthy or else you might find yourself spending more time being sick. Hard work should be balanced with other activities that you enjoy and give you a break. These activities can often become important in your future scientific career. Collaborations sometimes start not because of a shared scientific interest initially, but because you share the same hobby or other interest. Rule 4: Remember, Life is All about Balance

29 SS Termin 229Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung There are two parts to this. The first part relates to professional development. Being a successful scientist is more involved than just doing good science. You need to be able to write good papers, submit compelling scholarship and grant applications, make powerful presentations, and communicate and collaborate with other researchers. … you need to work on developing these skills at the same time as you work on your thesis. The second part involves using these emergent skills to figure out what to do with the higher postgraduate degree. Do not wait until you graduate to take the next step. Have a position and a fellowship, if possible, lined up ahead of time. Rule 5: Think Ahead and Develop your Professional Career Early

30 SS Termin 230Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Rule 6: Remain Focused on Your Hypothesis While Avoiding Being Held Back Formulation of the hypothesis is the first thing you'll learn in Science 101, and yet somehow it seems to get occasionally thrown out the window. When you find yourself lost in the details of your research, take a step back and remind yourself of the big picture. Revaluate your hypothesis from time to time to see if it still makes sense, because you may find yourself needing a new one. Always keep this in mind in discussions with your mentor. Ten Simple Rules for Graduate Students

31 SS Termin 231Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung As you have these discussions, remember you are cheap labor, and, if you are a good student, a source of success to your mentor. The temptation is that your mentor will want to keep you around as long as possible. Define the scope of your project early with your mentor and agree that this is what you will attempt to complete in order to receive the degree. A career awaits you beyond the laboratory of your graduate student days. Do not prolong moving on to new challenges. Ten Simple Rules for Graduate Students

32 SS Termin 232Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung If graduate school was not quite what you thought it would be, be it scientifically or otherwise, find out what your options are to address the problem. Discuss these problems with your mentors. A good mentor is there not just to guide you scientifically, but also in your personal development. Remember, they have been there themselves and have likely seen similar issues with earlier students. Take time off to reflect on your future if this is needed. A good mentor will understand that you come first. Rule 7: Address Problems Earlier Rather than Later

33 SS Termin 233Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung Being recognized by your peers as someone who does good science is important both within your institution, nationally, and internationally. When opportunities arise to give seminars and presentations to other groups, take them. Before starting with a mentor, come to an agreement as to when and what meetings you can attend locally and globally. Scientific meetings are a fun and fruitful venue for exchange. Be sure to venture beyond the comfort zone of familiar faces, because it is important to meet other colleagues in your field. These people may become your future collaborators, friends, advocates, and employers. Rule 8: Share Your Scientific Success with the World

34 SS Termin 234Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung … expect your work to be criticized and scoffed at... The best way to build self-confidence... is to be prepared and to present your work clearly with a confident display of your expansive knowledgebase of the relevant related work. Do not be intimidated by big names who question your work; counter knowledge with knowledge. Another reason to have a thick skin is that the path to success will not be without setbacks.... Undergraduate training is usually much more structured and does not prepare you for such setbacks. Learn as much as you can from these situations both about the science and yourself and move on. Rule 10: Help Select and Subsequently Engage Your Thesis Committee Rule 9:Build Confidence and a Thick Skin

35 SS Termin 235Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung How do Research Groups work? If you want to join an ambitious research group you should consider that „the boss“ (principal investigator = professor or group leader) may have different interests than you. Probably he/she will favor maximal output (publications, getting grants and awards). Also, he gets a piece of the fame if you become professor yourself. BUT he is probably not much interested in whether you have a good work-life balance etc. Maybe he/she will also consider this as orthogonal to his/her plans.

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