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Principles of Anatomy and Physiology Thirteenth Edition Chapter 23 The Respiratory System Copyright © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Gerard J. Tortora.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Anatomy and Physiology Thirteenth Edition Chapter 23 The Respiratory System Copyright © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Gerard J. Tortora."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Anatomy and Physiology Thirteenth Edition Chapter 23 The Respiratory System Copyright © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Gerard J. Tortora Bryan H. Derrickson

2 Nose Nasal cavity Larynx Trachea Pharynx Right primary bronchus Lungs (a) Anterior view showing organs of respiration

3 Trachea Right common carotid artery Thyroid gland Subclavian artery Phrenic nerve Left common carotid artery Arch of aorta Rib (cut) Left lung Heart in pericardial sac Diaphragm Trachea Right subclavian artery Brachiocephalic artery Superior vena cava Right lung Liver (b) Anterior view of lungs and heart after removal of anterolateral thoracic wall and pleura

4 Lateral nasal cartilages Frontal bone Nasal bones Maxilla Dense fibrous connective and adipose tissue Septal cartilage Alar cartilage Bony framework: Cartilaginous framework: (a) Anterolateral view of external portion of nose showing cartilaginous and bony framework

5 Sphenoid bone Frontal sinus (b) Parasagittal section of left side of head and neck showing location of respiratory structures Frontal bone Olfactory epithelium Superior Middle Inferior Nasal vestibule External naris Maxilla Oral cavity Palatine bone Soft palate Lingual tonsil Mandible Hyoid bone Ventricular fold (false vocal cord) Vocal fold (true vocal cord) Larynx Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Thyroid gland Sphenoidal sinus Internal naris Pharyngeal tonsil NASOPHARYNX Opening of auditory tube Uvula Palatine tonsil Fauces OROPHARYNX Epiglottis LARYNGOPHARYNX Esophagus Trachea Inferior Middle Superior Nasal conchae Nasal meatuses Regions of the pharynx Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx Parasagittal plane Tongue

6 Periorbital fat Eyeball Ethmoidal cell Superior nasal concha Middle nasal concha Inferior nasal concha Maxillary sinus Perpendicular plate of ethmoid Vomer Hard palate Frontal plane View (c) Frontal section showing conchae Nasal septum:

7 1 3 2 4 Anterior view 1. Root: Superior attachment of the nose to the frontal bone 2. Apex: Tip of nose 3. Bridge: Bony framework of nose formed by nasal bones 4. External naris: Nostril; external opening into nasal cavity

8 Hyoid bone Epiglottis Thyrohyoid membrane Epiglottis: Leaf Stem Corniculate cartilage Thyroid cartilage (Adam’s apple) Arytenoid cartilage Cricothyroid ligament Cricoid cartilage Cricotracheal ligament Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands (4) Tracheal cartilage Thyroid glandLarynx (a) Anterior view(b) Posterior view

9 Hyoid bone (c) Sagittal section Thyrohyoid membrane Fat body Ventricular fold (false vocal cord) Thyroid cartilage Vocal fold (true vocal cord) Cricothyroid ligament Cricotracheal ligament Thyrohyoid membrane Epiglottis Cuneiform cartilage Corniculate cartilage Arytenoid cartilage Laryngeal sinus Cricoid cartilage Tracheal cartilage Sagittal plane

10 Thyrohyoid muscle Epiglottic cartilage Vestibular fold Vocal fold Vocalis muscle Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle Sternothyroid muscle Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle Cricothyroid muscle Cricothyroid ligaments Trachea Thyroid gland Parathyroid gland Hyoid bone Thyrohyoid membrane Rima vestibuli Laryngeal sinus Thyroid cartilage Rima glottidis Cricoid cartilage Cricotracheal ligament First tracheal cartilage Vestibule of larynx Cavity of larynx Cavity of larynx Cavity of larynx Cavity of larynx (d) Frontal section

11 Thyroid cartilage Superior view of cartilages and muscles Cricoid cartilage Vocal fold Arytenoid cartilage Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle Tongue Epiglottis Rima glottidis Ventricular folds (false vocal cords) Cuneiform cartilage Glottis: Vocal folds (true vocal cords) Corniculate cartilage View through a laryngoscope (a) Movement of vocal folds apart (abduction) (b) Movement of vocal folds together (adduction) Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle

12 Epiglottis (c) Superior view Vocal folds (true vocal cords) Rima glottidis Cuneiform cartilage Corniculate cartilage Ventricular folds (false vocal cords) Larynx View

13 Cartilage of trachea Right lateral lobe of thyroid gland Fibromuscular membrane of trachea (contains trachealis muscle) Esophagus Left lateral lobe of thyroid gland ANTERIOR POSTERIOR Superior view of transverse section of thyroid gland, trachea, and esophagus EsophagusTrachea Transverse plane

14 Larynx Anterior view Trachea Left lung Location of carina Left secondary bronchus Left tertiary bronchus Left primary bronchus Left bronchiole Left terminal bronchiole Diaphragm Right lung Visceral pleura Parietal pleura Pleural cavity Right primary bronchus Right secondary bronchus Right tertiary bronchus Right bronchiole Right terminal bronchiole Cardiac notch BRANCHING OF BRONCHIAL TREE Trachea Primary bronchi Secondary bronchi Tertiary bronchi Bronchioles Terminal bronchioles

15 POSTERIOR Sternum Visceral pleura Superior vena cava Left lung Ascending aorta Pulmonary arteries Pulmonary vein Esophagus Thoracic aorta Body of T4 Spinal cord Parietal pleura Right lung Pleural cavity MEDIALLATERAL Inferior view of transverse section through thoracic cavity showing pleural cavity and pleural membranes Transverse plane View

16 (a) Anterior view of lungs and pleurae in thorax First rib Apex of lung Left lung Base of lung Pleural cavity Pleura

17 (b) Lateral view of right lung Apex View (b) Superior lobe ANTERIOR Horizontal fissure Cardiac notch Middle lobe Base Oblique fissure Inferior lobe POSTERIOR (c) Lateral view of left lung Oblique fissure Inferior lobe POSTERIOR View (c)

18 (d) Medial view of right lung Apex View (e) Superior lobe POSTERIOR Hilum and its contents (root) Cardiac notch Middle lobe Base Oblique fissure Horizontal fissure ANTERIOR (e) Medial view of left lung Oblique fissure Inferior lobe View (d) ANTERIOR

19 (a) Diagram of portion of lobule of lung Terminal bronchiole Pulmonary venule Elastic connective tissue Pulmonary capillary Visceral pleura Alveoli Pulmonary arteriole Lymphatic vessel Respiratory bronchiole Alveoli Alveolar ducts Alveolar sac MICROSCOPIC AIRWAYS Terminal bronchioles Respiratory bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveolar sacs Alveoli

20 Terminal bronchiole Blood vessel Respiratory bronchiole Alveolar ducts Alveoli Alveolar sacs Visceral pleura LM about 30x (b) Lung lobule

21 Red blood cell (a) Section through alveolus showing cellular components Capillary endothelium Capillary basement membrane Epithelial basement membrane Type I alveolar cell Interstitial space Type I alveolar cell Respiratory membrane Type II alveolar (septal) cell Alveolar macrophage (dust cell) Red blood cell in pulmonary capillary Alveolus Elastic fiber Reticular fiber Monocyte Alveolar fluid with surfactant (b) Details of respiratory membrane Alveolus Diffusion of CO 2 Diffusion of O 2

22 Alveolar macrophage (dust cell) Alveolus (c) Details of several alveoli LM 1000x Alveolus Type II alveolar (septal) cell Type I alveolar (squamous pulmonary epithelial) cell

23 Pressure gauge Piston Volume = 1 liter Pressure = 1 atm Volume = 1/2 liter Pressure = 2 atm

24 Internal oblique Transversus abdominis Rectus abdominis External oblique Internal intercostals Sternocleidomastoid Scalenes External intercostals Diaphragm MUSCLES OF INHALATIONMUSCLES OF EXHALATION (a) Muscles of inhalation and their actions (left); muscles of exhalation and their actions (right)

25 Exhalation Inhalation (b) Changes in size of thoracic cavity during inhalation and exhalation Diaphragm: Exhalation Inhalation Sternum:

26 (c) During inhalation, the ribs move upward and outward like the handle on a bucket

27 Alveolar pressure = 758 mmHg 2. During inhalation (diaphragm contracting) Intrapleural pressure = 754 mmHg 1. At rest (diaphragm relaxed) 3. During exhalation (diaphragm relaxing) Atmospheric pressure = 760 mmHg Alveolar pressure = 760 mmHg Intrapleural pressure = 756 mmHg Alveolar pressure = 762 mmHg Intrapleural pressure = 756 mmHg Atmospheric pressure = 760 mmHg

28 During normal quiet inhalation, the diaphragm and external intercostals contract. During labored inhalation, sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, and pectoralis minor also contract. Alveolar pressure increases to 762 mmHg Atmospheric pressure is about 760 mmHg at sea level Alveolar pressure decreases to 758 mmHg During normal quiet exhalation, diaphragm and external intercostals relax. During forceful exhalation, abdominal and internal intercostal muscles contract. Thoracic cavity decreases in size and lungs recoil Thoracic cavity increases in size and volume of lungs expands (a) Inhalation(b) Exhalation

29 LUNG CAPACITIES LUNG VOLUMES 6000 mL 5000 mL 4000 mL 3000 mL 2000 mL 1000 mL INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME 3100 mL (1900 mL) TIDAL VOLUME 500 mL EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME 1200 mL (700 mL) RESIDUAL VOLUME 1200 mL (1100 mL) INSPIRATORY CAPACITY 3600 mL (2400 mL) VITAL CAPACITY 4800 mL (3100 mL) TOTAL LUNG CAPACITY 6000 mL (4200 mL) FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY 2400 mL (1800 mL) Start of record End of record Exhalation Inhalation

30 CO 2 exhaled O 2 inhaled Atmospheric air: P O2 = 159 mmHg P CO2 = 0.3 mmHg Alveolar air: P O2 = 105 mmHg P CO2 = 40 mmHg Oxygenated blood: P O2 = 100 mmHg P CO2 = 40 mmHg Deoxygenated blood: P O2 = 40 mmHg P CO2 = 45 mmHg Systemic tissue cells: P O2 = 40 mmHg P CO2 = 45 mmHg Pulmonary capillaries (a) External respiration: pulmonary gas exchange (b) Internal respiration: systemic gas exchange Systemic capillaries To lungs To right atrium To left atrium To tissue cells Alveoli CO 2 O2O2 O2O2 O2O2

31 Transport of CO 2 7% dissolved in plasma 23% as Hb-CO 2 70% as HCO 3 – Transport of CO 2 1.5% dissolved in plasma 98.5% as Hb-O 2 Alveoli (a) External respiration: pulmonary gas exchange (b) Internal respiration: systemic gas exchange 7% 23% 70% 1.5% 98.5% 1.5% 70% 7% 23% CO 2 (dissolved) CO 2 (dissolved) HCO 3 – O 2 (dissolved) O 2 (dissolved) O 2 (dissolved) O 2 (dissolved) HCO 3 – Hb To lungs To right atrium To left atrium To tissue cells Systemic capillaries Systemic tissue cells Plasma Red blood cell Pulmonary capillaries CO 2 O2O2 O2O2 O2O2 O2O2 Hb + O 2 Hb–O 2 CO 2 + Hb Hb–CO 2 Hb Hb–CO 2 Hb–O 2 O2O2 O2O2

32 P (mmHg) O2O2 Oxygenated blood in systemic arteries Deoxygenated blood in systemic veins (average at rest) Deoxygenated blood (contracting skeletal muscle) Percent saturation of hemoglobin

33 P (mmHg) O2O2 Percent saturation of hemoglobin High blood pH (7.6) Normal blood pH (7.4) Low blood pH (7.2) (a) Effect of pH on affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen

34 Low blood P CO 2 (b) Effect of P on affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen CO 2 P (mmHg) O2O2 Percent saturation of hemoglobin Normal blood High blood CO 2 P P

35 Low temperature (20°C, 68°F) P (mmHg) O2O2 Percent saturation of hemoglobin Normal blood temperature (37°C, 98.6°F) High temperature (43°C, 110°F)

36 P (mmHg) O2O2 Percent saturation of hemoglobin Maternal Fetal

37 (a) Exchange of O 2 and CO 2 in pulmonary capillaries (external respiration) Exhaled Inhaled Alveolus Interstitial fluid Pulmonary capillary wall Plasma Red blood cell Reverse chloride shift CO 2 CO 2 + H 2 O CO 2 + HbHb–CO 2 O2O2 O2O2 O2O2 O 2 + Hb–H Hb–O 2 + H + HCO 3 – HCO 3 – + H + H 2 CO 3 Cl – Carbonic anhydrase (b) Exchange of O 2 and CO 2 in systemic capillaries (internal respiration) Tissue cell Interstitial fluid Systemic capillary wall Plasma Red blood cell Chloride shift CO 2 CO 2 + H 2 O CO 2 + HbHb–CO 2 + O 2 O2O2 O2O2 O2O2 O 2 + Hb–H Hb–O 2 HCO 3 – HCO 3 – + H + H 2 CO 3 Cl – Carbonic anhydrase

38 Midbrain Pons Medulla oblongata Spinal cord Pneumotaxic area Apneustic area Inspiratory area Expiratory area Medullary rhythmicity area: Sagittal plane RESPIRATORY CENTER: Sagittal section of brain stem

39 INSPIRATORY AREA Diaphragm and external intercostals relax, followed by elastic recoil of lungs ACTIVEINACTIVE Diaphragm and external intercostals contract Normal quiet inhalationNormal quiet exhalationForceful inhalationForceful exhalation Internal intercostal and abdominal muscles contract Diaphragm, sternocleidomastoid, and scalene muscles contract INSPIRATORY AREA ACTIVE EXPIRATORY AREA Activates 3 seconds2 seconds (a) During normal quiet breathing(b) During forceful breathing

40 Medulla oblongata Sensory axons in glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX) Carotid body Carotid sinus Sensory axons in vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) Arch of aorta Aortic bodies Common carotid artery External carotid artery Internal carotid artery Heart

41 Peripheral chemo- receptors in aortic and carotid bodies Central Chemo- receptors in medulla Muscles of inhalation and exhalation contract more forcefully and more frequently (hyperventilation) Decrease in arterial blood P CO2, increase in pH, and increase in P O2 Return to homeostasis when response brings arterial blood P CO2, pH, and P O2 back to normal Effectors Control center Receptors Increasing Nerve impulses Input Nerve impulses Output Arterial blood P CO2 (or decreasing pH or P O2 ) Some stimulus disrupts homeostasis by Inspiratory area in medulla oblongata

42 Pharynx Respiratory diverticulum Tracheal bud Esophagus Trachea Bronchial buds Esophagus Fourth week

43 Trachea Fifth week Right primary bronchus Right secondary bronchi Left primary bronchus Left secondary bronchi Right tertiary bronchi Sixth week Left tertiary bronchi

44 Trachea Eighth week Left superior lobe Right superior lobe Right middle lobe Right inferior lobe Left inferior lobe Developing pleura


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