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Elements of Music (continued) Texture Musical Texture Number of layers of sound that are heard at once, including… –What kind of layers they are, and.

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Presentation on theme: "Elements of Music (continued) Texture Musical Texture Number of layers of sound that are heard at once, including… –What kind of layers they are, and."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Elements of Music (continued) Texture

3 Musical Texture Number of layers of sound that are heard at once, including… –What kind of layers they are, and –How they are related to each other

4 Musical Texture is all about LAYERS Think FOOD… Lemon poundcake Is a single layer Black Forest Cake Is many layers

5 Musical Texture is all about LAYERS Think FOOD… Lemon poundcake Is MONO-textured Black Forest Cake Is POLY-textured

6 Musical Texture is all about LAYERS MONOPHONY is musical texture with only one layer of melody POLYPHONY is musical texture with more than one layer of melody

7 Musical Textures MONOPHONY (n.), MONOPHONIC (adj.) [one sounding] –Single melodic line without accompaniment –Example ANONYMOUS - Alleluia Vidimus Stellam (Gregorian Chant) POLYPHONY (n.), POLYPHONIC (adj.) [many sounding] –Performance of two or more melodic lines of relatively equal interest at the same time –Example J.S. BACH - Movement 4 from Cantata #140 “Wachet auf”

8 Counterpoint (n.),Contrapuntal (adj.) The technique of combining two or more melodic lines into a meaningful whole Often used interchangeably with POLYPHONY Term comes from Latin - “punctum contra punctum” (point against point, note against note)

9 ANONYMOUS - Alleluia Vidimus Stellam (Gregorian Chant) Solo voice Choir

10 J.S. BACH - Movement 4 from Cantata #140 “Wachet auf” Violins Tenors Cellos/Harpsichord

11 POLYPHONY has different types NON-IMITATIVE(adj.) –Example: J.S.BACH - Movement 4 from Cantata #140 “Wachet auf” –When the layers of melody are different from one another IMITATION (n.), IMITATIVE (adj.) –Example: JOSQUIN DESPREZ - Ave Maria –When the layers of melody are the same or very similar and the different layers start at different times

12 J.S. BACH - Movement 4 from Cantata #140 “Wachet auf” Violins Tenors Cellos/Harpsichord NON-IMITATIVE POLYPHONY

13 JOSQUIN DESPREZ - Ave Maria Sopranos Altos Tenors Basses IMITATIVE POLYPHONY

14 “Frere Jacques” (Row, row, row your boat) Example of ROUND/CANON Voice 1 Voice 2 Voice …

15 Round (Canon) A strict type of IMITATIVE POLYPHONY in which a song in which several people sing the same melody but each starts at a different time Examples: –“Frere Jacques” (Are you sleeping, Brother John?) –“Row, row, row your boat”

16 There is one special type of NON-IMITATIVE POLYPHONY HOMOPHONY- term describing music in which one main melody is accompanied by chords –“HYMN-LIKE” The main melody is usually the highest in pitch The melodic layers move in similar rhythms The melodies sound together to produce chords Example: J.S. BACH - Movement 7 from Cantata #140 –“MELODY & ACCOMPANIMENT” The main melody stands out by itself The “back-up” part is made up of chords Example: FREDERIC CHOPIN - Nocturne in Eb Major

17 Pedal Point (Organ Point) A single tone, usually in the bass, which is held while the other voices produce a series of changing harmonies against it; othen found in fugues –Example: G.F. Handel “Hallelujah” Chorus from Messiah Similar to DRONE - A long, sustained tone or tones accompanying a melody –Example: Hildegard of Bingen - “O Successores” (Chant)

18 G.F. HANDEL - “Hallelujah Chorus” from Messiah Orchestral Intro “Hallelujah” “for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth” “Hallelujah” “for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth” “Hallelujah” “for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth/Hallelujah” POLYPHONY HOMOPHONY MONOPHONY HOMOPHONY MONOPHONY HOMOPHONY POLYPHONY

19 G.F. HANDEL - “Hallelujah Chorus” from Messiah “The kingdom of this world is become the Kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ” “And He shall reign for ever and ever” “King of Kings, and Lord or Lords, for ever and ever, Hallelujah, Hallelujah!” HOMOPHONY (Bass) MONOPHONY, then IMITATIVE POLYPHONY PEDAL POINT

20 G.F. HANDEL - “Hallelujah Chorus” from Messiah “And He shall reign for ever and ever” “King of Kings, and Lord or Lords, for ever and ever, Hallelujah, Hallelujah!” “And He shall reign for ever and ever” “King of Kings, and Lord or Lords, POLYPHONY PEDAL POINT POLYPHONY HOMOPHONY

21 G.F. HANDEL - “Hallelujah Chorus” from Messiah “for ever and ever, Hallelujah, Hallelujah!” (pause) “Hallelujah!” POLYPHONY HOMOPHONY


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