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By Ms. Sally M. JOHNSON © 2013. FORMAT OF ESSAY Introduction Restate the question, and list major Challenges faced Supporting Detail 2 Choose a challenge.

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Presentation on theme: "By Ms. Sally M. JOHNSON © 2013. FORMAT OF ESSAY Introduction Restate the question, and list major Challenges faced Supporting Detail 2 Choose a challenge."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Ms. Sally M. JOHNSON © 2013

2 FORMAT OF ESSAY Introduction Restate the question, and list major Challenges faced Supporting Detail 2 Choose a challenge then provide supporting details for that challenge area e.g.. Harsh Living Conditions Supporting Detail 4 Choose another challenge then provide supporting details for that challenge area e.g. Poor soil & Bad weather conditions Briefly summarize each important points and state how they loyalist was able to overcome these challenges Conclusion Supporting Detail 3 Choose another challenge then provide supporting details for that challenge area e.g. Decline in the production of cotton Supporting Detail 1 Briefly describe how life was for the Loyalist upon their arrival to The Bahamas then list the challenges you intend to discuss

3 Introduction Restate the question, and list major Challenges faced

4 Introduction The main objective of this presentation is talk about the main challenges the loyalist experienced upon their arrival to The Bahamas and the affect these challenges had on them.

5 When did the Loyalist arrive? The first Loyalist arrived in Nassau in they were very poor and received aid from the British Government. The first Loyalist arrived in Nassau in they were very poor and received aid from the British Government. The Loyalist continued to arrive in the Bahamas until March It is estimated that between 5,000 to 7,000 Loyalist and their slaves arrived during this time. The population of The Bahamas was tripled and blacks now outnumbered whites three to one. It was suggested that the British Government should give land in the Bahamas to the Loyalist. The Loyalist continued to arrive in the Bahamas until March It is estimated that between 5,000 to 7,000 Loyalist and their slaves arrived during this time. The population of The Bahamas was tripled and blacks now outnumbered whites three to one. It was suggested that the British Government should give land in the Bahamas to the Loyalist.

6 This was not possible because the Lord Proprietors still held the ownership of the islands. After the Lord Proprietors were paid. The Bahamas was finally given to England. This matter was finally settled in Each head of a Loyalist was given 40 acres of Land. An additional 20 acres was given to every other member of the Family.This was not possible because the Lord Proprietors still held the ownership of the islands. After the Lord Proprietors were paid. The Bahamas was finally given to England. This matter was finally settled in Each head of a Loyalist was given 40 acres of Land. An additional 20 acres was given to every other member of the Family.

7 There were many disappointments among the Loyalists, who had been promised free land and food. Many were dumped ashore and expected to survive on their own. They had come from prosperous farms and now had to start all over again, clearing farmland and building houses. Loyalists faced hard choices and difficult times in Canada, Florida, and the Bahamas (Wynn, 1987) Survival forced them to employ otherwise questionable methods

8 Major Challenges Challenges that the Loyalists of the Bahamas faced were:  Harsh living conditions  Conflicts between Old & New Inhabitants  Poor soil and inexperienced planters  Decline in the production and quality of locally produced cotton.  Differences in cultures  Weak economy  Bad Governor ( Lord Dunmore)

9 When Britain offered approximately eight thousand displaced American Loyalists, vacant land grants throughout the islands, new towns in the Bahamas were founded under difficult circumstances since the Loyalists had to endure the island's primitive conditions while tented in vast refugee camps at Carleton as the process of deciding who got what took place.

10  Challenge 1: Harsh Living Conditions Upon arrival the Loyalists faced many difficulties. Very few of the refugees could provide for themselves There were two major problems in Nassau that were caused by the arrival of the Loyalist. These were 1) lack of shelter and 2) lack of food. Army tents and lean tents were used to house the Loyalists. Almost all food had to be shipped into the colony. There had been no shelter for the Loyalists, all food had to be imported, and when supply vessels were wrecked, some Loyalists went hungry.  Challenge 1: Harsh Living Conditions Upon arrival the Loyalists faced many difficulties. Very few of the refugees could provide for themselves There were two major problems in Nassau that were caused by the arrival of the Loyalist. These were 1) lack of shelter and 2) lack of food. Army tents and lean tents were used to house the Loyalists. Almost all food had to be shipped into the colony. There had been no shelter for the Loyalists, all food had to be imported, and when supply vessels were wrecked, some Loyalists went hungry.

11 One of the results of the great flood of new settlers was a shortage of food and supplies This caused food prices doubled. Food products such as Hour, butter, cheese, West Indian Sugar, rum and even soap went up in price. Many new stores were opened and some U.S companies moved their headquarters to The Bahamas. Those Loyalists living on the Out Island quickly put their slaves to work clearing the land and creating makeshift shelters and creating farms. However those living on New Providence were dissatisfied, and begin causing problems, attacking visiting Americans and causing trouble in the Assembly

12 Challenge 2 Conflicts “ On New Providence Loyalists were dissatisfied, attacking visiting Americans and causing trouble in the Assembly ” ( Bahamian History Highlights Allan. G. Murray page 53)“ On New Providence Loyalists were dissatisfied, attacking visiting Americans and causing trouble in the Assembly ” ( Bahamian History Highlights Allan. G. Murray page 53) Initially these Loyalists argued with the older settlers because of their eagerness to control the political life of the colony and their differing social values Initially these Loyalists argued with the older settlers because of their eagerness to control the political life of the colony and their differing social values Social Studies for Bahamian Social Studies Bk 2 Neil Sealey & Chris Curry pg. 35) The flood of persons into the island created social ramifications, such as: African slaves ships were brought to Nassau harbour for the first time. The black population outnumbered the white. The New inhabitants of the islands were in dispute with the old inhabitants because they were not acknowledged in the government of the colony

13 The loyalists clashed with the older Bahamian population, known as conchs, who they felt were favoured by the governor. And they protested vigorously against what they considered to be a lack of representation. These protests extended to "explosive public outbursts, riots and assaults, and proto-revolutionary councils." According to Jasanoff, "These doubly displaced refugees came bearing enormous resentment against their own government for abandoning Florida."

14 Most had arrived from Florida, where they had taken refuge following the British defeat at Yorktown. They had been forced to move again when peace negotiations ceded Florida to Spain in exchange for Gibraltar. Described as "the most tormenting, dissatisfied people on Earth," these Florida refugees soon created turmoil in the somnolent Bahama Islands. "If the remainder who intend coming here are of the same sort," the governor said at the time, "civil government is in danger."

15 “ The new settlers were dissatisfied because they had no share in the Government of the colony “There was a great deal of ill- feelings between the Loyalists and the old inhabitants in the House of Assembly. The new settlers wanted to make reforms in the government and laws of the colony. However the old inhabitants had the majority in the House and refused to hear any protests. During the nine years of this Assembly very little business was carried through by the House of Assembly and the ill-feeling gradually subsided ” ( Bahamian History book 2 Gillian Bain page 47)

16 Challenge 3: Decline in the production and quality of locally produced cotton Challenge 3: Decline in the production and quality of locally produced cotton Disaster struck the cotton plantation in 1789 when almost the entire crop of cotton was destroyed. Two types of insects, the chenille worm and the red dye bug, destroyed most of the cotton. Over the next few years the damage was not as great.. The cotton began to die out and by 1830 almost all of the cotton farmers were gone.Disaster struck the cotton plantation in 1789 when almost the entire crop of cotton was destroyed. Two types of insects, the chenille worm and the red dye bug, destroyed most of the cotton. Over the next few years the damage was not as great.. The cotton began to die out and by 1830 almost all of the cotton farmers were gone. “ In 1788 the cotton began to decline. The plants were attacked by insects and the land became exhausted through wasteful and heavy cultivation ” ( Bahamian History book Two Gillian Bain page 47) ( Bahamian History book Two Gillian Bain page 47)

17 In 1788, the cotton began to decline as they came to be attacked by the red-dye bug and the chenille worm; additionally, the soil of the islands became exhausted due the poor cultivation methods used. This forced the departure of many of the planters altogether.

18 Challenge 4: Poor Soil & Bad Weather Conditions At the time that the plantation Loyalists arrived in the Bahamas, the soil was not fully developed and was considered to be what was referred to as immature soil. The soil quickly became exhausted of nutrients thus reducing the amount and quality of cotton production. “ It was true the soil was thin and the “ slash and burn” method was usually employed to clear the fields. When one field was exhausted the planters moved to another. Manure was hard to come by and many planters had no cattle” (Slavery in the Bahamas by Gail Saunders pg. 26)

19 The original soil of Exuma had limited capacity at best with only a thin layer of topsoil atop coral sand or harder coral base material. While these conditions supported some virgin growth, virtually all the soil was removed as the Loyalists cleared the land for their cotton fields. x As a result the soil was then exposed, vulnerable to high winds, the occasional downpours and the rare hurricanes that beset the island.As a result the soil was then exposed, vulnerable to high winds, the occasional downpours and the rare hurricanes that beset the island. The land was then overplanted and exhausted with no means to revitalize it and the weakened plants also became infested with chenille bug, a caterpillar- like worm that turned the cotton fibers a reddish colourThe land was then overplanted and exhausted with no means to revitalize it and the weakened plants also became infested with chenille bug, a caterpillar- like worm that turned the cotton fibers a reddish colour

20 Bad weather conditions such as major hurricanes also lead to massive damage to crops. Also those migrating to the southern islands had to endure huge sprouts of drought and extreme high temperature which damaged the crops as well.

21 1788 also brought other issues to the Bahamas as it was the year that Lord Dunmore, a most hated Governor was sent to the islands. This position was awarded for his loyalty during the war at which time he was governor of New York and Virginia. There were several reason that is governor was disfavoured;  His poor attitude toward others especially the Loyalists  His immoral way of life  His constant interference in justice and  Nepotism  His negative efforts encouraged the legislative change which granted the right to control finances to the assembly rather than the governor. Challenge 5: BAD GOVERNOR

22 A combination of insect pests, soil exhaustion and hurricanes ultimately wrecked loyalist plans for a lucrative new life on the islands. The remains of their failed plantations can still be found on New Providence, San Salvador and Cat Island. CONCLUSION 1

23 Conclusion 2 Although the Loyalists made a tremendous impact on Bahamian Society, they were in many ways transformed themselves by the harshness of living in The Bahamas. After the failure of cotton, many loyalists were forced to revert to the old ways of making a living which meant surviving off the sea to a greater extent than the land, a common theme in Bahamian history. Hence like the older inhabitants, Loyalists began fishing, conking and engaging in wrecking in order to survive. Bahamian Social Studies for Secondary Schools Chris Curry & Neil Sealy

24 Putting it Together!! The next Two slides shows how to put your essay using the notes provided so as to complete your essay. Use as a guide but please don’t copy as is. This is called plagiarism and you will get marked down This is a piece of cake.You can do it

25 Introductory Sentence “The Loyalists were Promised Land and food. Many were left ashore and had to survive by themselves. They had no shelter and food. They had come from prosperous farms and now had to start all over again, clearing farmland and building houses. There were substantial food shortages and food had to be imported from the neighbouring United States The main objective of this presentation is talk about the main challenges the loyalist experienced upon their arrival to The Bahamas and the affect these challenges had on them. The first challenge many loyalists faced was that of poor soil and Bad weather At the time of the Loyalists arrival the soil was not fully. developed and was referred to as immature soil. The soil quickly became exhausted of nutrients which reduced the amount and quality of cotton production. It was true the soil was thin and the “ slash and burn” method was usually employed to clear the fields. When one field was exhausted the planters moved to another. Manure was hard to come by and many planters had no cattle” (Slavery in the Bahamas by Gail Saunders pg. 26) Bad weather conditions such as major hurricanes also lead to massive damage to crops. Also those migrating to the southern islands had to endure huge sprouts of drought and extreme high temperature which damaged the crops as well. A second major challenge was when disaster struck the cotton plantation in In 1789 almost the entire cotton plantation was almost destroyed by the chenille worm and the red-dye bug. The Chenille Worm ate the plant and the Red- Dye stains the cotton buds. In 1830 almost all the cotton farmers were gone. In 1788, the cotton began to decline as they came to be attacked. The cotton began to die out and by 1830 almost all of the cotton farmers were gone. A third major problem was that of conflicts or feuds between the new inhabitants and the old inhabitants. There was a great deal of ill- feelings between the Loyalists and the old inhabitants in the House of Assembly. The new settlers wanted to make reforms in the government and laws of the colony. However the old inhabitants had the majority in the House and refused to hear any protests. During the nine years of this Assembly very little business was carried through by the House of Assembly and the ill-feeling gradually subsided” ( Bahamian History book 2 Gillian Bain page 47)

26 BAD GOVERNOR 1788 also brought other issues to the Bahamas as it was the year that Lord Dunmore, a most hated Governor was sent to the islands. This position was awarded for his loyalty during the war at which time he was governor of New York and Virginia. There were several reason that is governor was disfavoured; His poor attitude toward others especially the Loyalists. His immoral way of life, his constant interference in justice and Nepotism. His negative efforts encouraged the legislative change which granted the right to control finances to the assembly rather than the governor. Poor soil and bad weather was perhaps the two most challenging factor that plagued the Loyalist especially in setting up their main industry which was cotton. At the time that the plantation Loyalists arrived in the Bahamas, the soil was not fully developed and was considered to be what was referred to as immature soil. The soil quickly became exhausted of nutrients thus reducing the amount and quality of cotton production. “ It was true the soil was thin and the “ slash and burn” method was usually employed to clear the fields. When one field was exhausted the planters moved to another. Manure was hard to come by and many planters had no cattle” (Slavery in the Bahamas by Gail Saunders pg. 26) Although the Loyalists made a tremendous impact on Bahamian Society, they were in many ways transformed themselves by the harshness of living in The Bahamas. After the failure of cotton, many loyalists were forced to revert to the old ways of making a living which meant surviving off the sea to a greater extent than the land, a common theme in Bahamian history. Hence like the older inhabitants, Loyalists began fishing, conking and engaging in wrecking in order to survive. The original soil of on many of the islands had limited capacity at best with only a thin layer of topsoil a top coral sand or harder coral base material. While these conditions supported some virgin growth, virtually all the soil was removed as the Loyalists cleared the land for their cotton fields. As a result the soil was then exposed, vulnerable to high winds, the occasional downpours and the rare hurricanes that beset the island. The land was then overplanted and exhausted with no means to revitalize it and the weakened plants also became infested with chenille bug, a caterpillar- like worm that turned the cotton fibers a reddish colour

27 References Bahamian Loyalists & their Slaves Bahamian Loyalists & their Slaves The Internet Google search/ Bahamian HistoryThe Internet Google search/ Bahamian History Bahamian History Book 1& 2Bahamian History Book 1& 2 Bahamian Social Studies for Secondary School bk 2 Bahamian Social Studies for Secondary School bk 2

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