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American Rises as a Power Imperialism WWI. Spanish-American War, 1898 1895—Cuban workers rebelled against Spain and their was a Spanish force sent to.

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Presentation on theme: "American Rises as a Power Imperialism WWI. Spanish-American War, 1898 1895—Cuban workers rebelled against Spain and their was a Spanish force sent to."— Presentation transcript:

1 American Rises as a Power Imperialism WWI

2 Spanish-American War, —Cuban workers rebelled against Spain and their was a Spanish force sent to crush the rebels Causes for US to intervene Moral obligation Yellow Journalism—Hearst and Pulitzer sensationalized the events to sell newspapers De Lôme Letter—Spanish ambassador called President McKinley “weak” Economic Interests—protect American investments in Cuba Sinking the Maine—blown up in Havana and blamed on the Spanish

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5 Spanish-American War, 1898 Overcame Spanish navy in the Philippines and in Cuba US acquired the Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam Cuba was independent in name, but fell under direct control of the US US in possession of an overseas empire

6 US Imperialism Pros Colonies could provide raw materials for factories Guaranteed markets for US goods Show US as a great nation Needed coaling stations for US trade in Asia Cons Violates democratic principles America was a colony once and fought a war to break free of British imperialism

7 US Imperialism Philippines Formerly part of the Spanish colonial empire US gained after the Spanish-American War Filipinos expected independence and fought till 1902

8 US Imperialism Hawaii Americans built sugar and pineapple plantations on Hawaii Settlers overthrew the Hawaiian queen in , Congress voted in favor of annexation

9 US Imperialism China Open Door Policy—favoring equal trading rights for all foreign nations in China 1900—the Boxer Rebellion threatened foreigners in China. An international army (w/US) crushed the rebellion, but the US opposed any attempt by other nations to use the rebellion to dismember China

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12 US Imperialism Japan 1853, the US had forced open an isolationist Japan to Western trade and influence when Commodore Matthew Perry landed there with an American gunships

13 Panama Canal Alfred Thayer Mahan believed that the US needed a large navy and a canal through Central America to establish itself as a world sea power Panamanian rebels declared their independence from Columbia and T Roosevelt sent a US warship to protect them The new Panama government gave the US control of a 10-mile wide strip of land through the center of Panama

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15 Panama Canal Challenges tropical climate disease-carrying mosquitoes mountains US Army drained the swamps to prevent malaria and yellow fever Army Corps of Engineers built locks to raise ships to an artificial lake and then lowered back to sea level

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17 Latin America Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine 1904 T. Roosevelt declared that the US would act as an “international police power” in Latin America Europe can not intervene to collect their debts, the US would act for them Sent troops to Haiti, Nicaragua, Honduras, and the Dominican Republic

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23 Causes of World War I Assassination of Austrian Archduke in 1914 Austria invaded Serbia for revenge Existing alliances brought in Russia, Germany, Britain and France into the war New weapons—machine gun, poison gas, airplanes and submarines—prevented either side from winning a quick victory US maintained a policy of neutrality

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26 Reasons for US Intervention Close ties to Great Britain and France Allied propaganda—Germany’s invasion of neutral Belgium Zimmerman Telegram—message from German government to return territories to Mexico if they acted against the US Unrestricted Submarine Warfare—sinking of the Lusitania by Germany without prior warning killing 128 American civilians

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31 Wilson won support for the war by explaining war was necessary “to make the world safe for democracy.”

32 America at War Government supervised food and industrial production for the war effort Selective Service Act (1917)—to draft men for the army and any that resisted conscription (draft) faced jail time

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38 America at War Espionage Act—imposed sentences up to 20 years in prison for persons found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty Sedition Act—imposed harsh penalties on anyone using “disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language” about the government, flag, or armed forces uniforms. Schenck v. United States—the Supreme Court upheld these restrictions on free speech during wartime

39 Peace Settlement An Armistice (cease-fire) was signed November 11, 1918 Wilson’s Fourteen Points (war aims)— reflected American idealism that the war should be a crusade for democracy and a lasting peace

40 Fourteen Points Each major European nationality should have its own nation and government Freedom of the seas Reduced armaments End to secret diplomacy and alliances League of Nations—international peace organization

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42 Versailles Treaty Wilson’s idealism came into conflict Allied leaders who wanted to impose harsh punishments on Germany Wilson compromised in order to get the League of Nations Germany lost territory to France and Poland Germany lost all of its colonies Germany lost its navy and army was reduced to the size of a police force

43 Versailles Treaty Germany had to accept blame for starting the war Germany had to pay reparations (payment for damages) to the Allies Austria-Hungary was divided into several new, smaller nations Turkey was divided up to mandates controlled by Great Britain & France

44 League of Nations Wilson hoped it would discourage future wars Senate would not ratify that part of the treaty, because it didn’t want to be drug into another European war Wilson appealed directly to the people, but they were disillusioned with world affairs US never joined the League of Nations and returned to a policy of isolationism

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