2 Spanish-American War Causes Humanitarian Concerns Yellow Journalism Joseph PulitzerWilliam Randolph HearstProtect U.S. economic interest in CubaDe Lôme Letter called McKinley “weak”Sinking of the U.S.S. MaineResultsU.S. get Philippines, Puerto Rico, GuamCuba became a virtual U.S. protectorateWhy the War is Considered a Turning PointEnded Spanish colonial empire in AmericaSaw emergence of US as a world Power
3 U.S. Colonial Empire Reasons for Colonial Expansion Need for raw materials and marketsColonies would help U.S. naval strengthNationalism – show other nations how strong U.S. had becomeMissionaries sought to spread ChristianityAlfred Thayer MahanWrote The Influences of Sea Power upon HistoryArgued for making U.S. into a world powerU.S. needed a strong navy to protect its colonial interests.
4 U.S. Involvement: Pacific Philippines – Filipinos rebel and resist U.S. ruleHawaii – Queen Liliuokalani tried to take political power back from the American landowners. Sandford Dole led to provisional government while it worked out U.S. annexation.Pacific Islands – Guam, Samoa, Midway serve as refueling stations
5 U.S Involvement: East Asia China European powers establish “spheres of influence” in ChinaJohn Hay’s Open Door PolicyBoxer Rebellion (1900) – uprising by Boxers against Western influence in China; foreign interventions suppresses the uprisingJapan – Commodore Perry opens Japan to trade and ends Japan’s traditional isolationTreaty of Portsmouth 1905 – T. Roosevelt negotiated between Russia and Japan after Japan wins the Russo-Japanese War.
6 U.S Involvement: The Caribbean Reasons for U.S. Interest in CaribbeanHemispheric securityAmerica acquires Puerto Rico and establishes indirect control of CubaProtect its economic investmentsPanama CanalConstruction of Panama CanalPresident T. Roosevelt helps Panamanians rebel against Colombia for a Canal ZoneU.S takes 10 years to construct canal, ends the need for a two-ocean navy.Dr Walter Reed discovered that yellow fever was spread by mosquitoes and Dr William Gorgas ordered all swamps drained, vegetation cut down, and all standing water sprayed with oil to prevent breeding of mosquitoesCaribbean as an “American Lake”
7 U.S. Involvement: Latin America Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe DoctrineThe US would act as international police powerBig Stick PolicyTaft’s Dollar DiplomacyAmerican investment to promote American foreign policyWilson’s “Watchful Waiting” PolicyRefused to recognize Mexico’s new governmentPancho Villa killed people in Columbus NM, Wilson sent the American Expeditionary Force led by General John Pershing to apprehend him
8 World War IEuropean Causes: nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and alliance systemSpark starting WWI was the assassination of Archduke Franz FerdinandReason for US intervention in the War.Closer ties with Britain and FranceGerman actions and propagandaZimmerman telegram/noteViolation of Freedom of the SeasSinking of the Lusitania/Sussex PledgeUse of unrestricted submarine warfare
9 World War I Highlights New weapons and tactics: submarines * early tanksmachine guns * poison gasair planes * trench warfareSelective Service Act allowed national government to draft men to serve in the warAmerican Expeditionary Force US troops sent to Europe to defeat GermanyBattle of Argonne Forest major battle of WWI. Germany was defeatedAlvin York was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor
10 World War I ResultsWilson’s Fourteen Points proposed by Wilson as a basis for the peace treatyCreate new nation-states: PolandBreak up Austria-HungaryFreedom of the SeasNo secret treaties, open diplomacyLeague of NationsVersailles and other treaties ended the war and dealt harshly with GermanyGermany lost its colonies and had to pay reparationsAustria-Hungary and Ottoman Turkey were broken up into separate nation-statesLeague of Nations created
11 Important Individuals Archduke Franz Ferdinand – his assassination sparked the start of WWIJohn Pershing – Commanded the American Expeditionary Force during WWIWoodrow Wilson – US President during WWI, issued Fourteen Points, and strongly supported US participation in the League of NationsHenry Cabot Lodge – US Senator who led the fight against joining the League of Nations