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Developing a Community of Inquiry in a Mobile Learning Context Mohamed Ally Martha Cleveland-Innes Marguerite Koole Richard Kenny Caroline Park CNIE 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing a Community of Inquiry in a Mobile Learning Context Mohamed Ally Martha Cleveland-Innes Marguerite Koole Richard Kenny Caroline Park CNIE 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing a Community of Inquiry in a Mobile Learning Context Mohamed Ally Martha Cleveland-Innes Marguerite Koole Richard Kenny Caroline Park CNIE 2009 OTTAWA, ONTARIO

2 Agenda Mohamed Ally Mobile Learning M. Cleveland-InnesCommunity of Inquiry Rick KennyCoI & Mobile Learning in Nursing Education Marguerite KooleFRAME model Caroline Park FRAME & Mobile Learning in Nursing Education Marguerite KoolePossible Integrated Model

3 Mobile Learning Learning using information and communication technologies in a way to facilitate learner’s mobility in different contexts.

4 Nomadicity The tendency of a person, or group of people, to move with relative frequency. It also means that learner can easily access electronic services, other learners / teachers / coaches / mentors, and various learning materials with their mobile devices while they are on the move.

5 Nomadic Learning A form of learning in which a learner has continuity of service across different sessions, and possibly, different locations. For example: a learner may have a different teacher every year; different colleagues every course, and a learner may change institutions from time to time. (IEEE )

6 Nomadic community building – how does one build and maintain a community while mobile. Part of a community in different contexts. Cognitive presence while mobile. Social presence while mobile. Teaching presence using mobile technology. Building CoI using Mobile Technology

7 Mobile technology allows unprecedented permutations and concatenation of innovations in communication at the levels of place and space, individual, group and mass, and creative new services offered from a range of entities from amateur creators to gigantic corporations. ……In contrast to computer and internet technology, social science research on mobile communication technology has not caught on quickly among the scholarly community. Katz, 2006 How does what we know of CoI apply to mobile learning?

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9 Social Presence The ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g., course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter- personal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities. Cognitive Presence The extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse in a critical community of inquiry. Teaching Presence The design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes Emotional Presence Instructors can model emotional response (Brookfield, 2006), explain its role in the instructor’s own learning (Kort, Reilly & Picard, 2001), teach how to bring emotion to consciousness and make use of the emotional state in a learning situation (Campbell & Cleveland-Innes, 2005).

10 Adjustment to role of online learner Course design Self identity Technological literacy Interaction New role for instructor

11 Problems posed increased my interest in course issues Course activities piqued my curiosity I felt motivated to explore content related questions I utilized a variety of information sources to explore problems posed in this course Brainstorming and finding relevant information helped me resolve content related questions Online discussions were valuable in helping me appreciate different perspectives Combining new information helped me answer questions raised in course activities Learning activities helped me construct explanations/solutions Reflection on course content and discussions helped me understand fundamental concepts in this class I can describe ways to test and apply the knowledge created in this course I have developed solutions to course problems that can be applied in practice I can apply the knowledge created in this course to my work or other non- class related activities Cognitive Presence

12 Towards Mobile Communities of Inquiry

13 Mlearning in Nursing Practice Education - Study Design- Field trial in 5 week class- Nursing groups: mobile learning (12) and comparison (5). Pre-study demographics survey. Post-survey of student use. 8 Semi-structured interviews ( 6 mobile group; 2 instructors). Cell phone usage data

14 Demographics Age Range Stage 2 (N=19) Level of Comfort (Before) DesktopMobile Very uncomfortable Somewhat uncomfortable Somewhat comfortable Very comfortable 114

15 Establishing Cognitive Presence – Learning Mobile Device Features Application Very Difficult Relatively easy Easy Browse Internet0066 Text messaging2073 Audio messaging 3441 Pocket Word1146 Drug software0057

16 Establishing Cognitive Presence: Usefulness for Learning Activities ApplicationUseless Rarely Useful Sometimes Useful Frequently Useful Browse Internet 2415 Text message4332 Audio message 8310 Pocket Word2334 Drug software1245

17 Establishing Teaching Presence: Use for Communication N=12With InstructorsWith Fellow Students 2X or less> 2X2X or less> 2X Cell phone Text Message102 2 Audio Message120 0

18 The FRAME Model (L) Mental, emotional & physiological characteristics (S) Social & cultural Characteristics (D) Technical Characteristics -Specifications: physical, electronic (D) Technical Characteristics -Specifications: physical, electronic Context: The learning system rests within a context of data or information waiting to be transformed into meaning Context: The learning system rests within a context of data or information waiting to be transformed into meaning (DL) Usability - How the learner interacts with the device (LS) Constructivism - How learner interacts with others within his/her socio-cultural environment (LS) Constructivism - How learner interacts with others within his/her socio-cultural environment (DS) Information transfer - How data & information is transferred between people & systems

19 Framework, post data analysis Koole’s FRAME Model for Nursing Practice Education (adapted with permission) S Device Usability (iPAQ) Portability On and offline information Immediacy or asynchronicity Communication tool Learner Aspect Students in course Previous Knowledge Orientation Course Requirements Social context Clinical practicum (client, preceptor and instructor) Socialization to Nursing Cooperation, Communication & Culture On site evidence informed learning & practice On site interaction via mobile Best Practice / Safety / Students both resource & role models) L D DS LS DL DLS

20 FRAME and CoI Cognitive Presence Social Presence Teaching Presence

21 A Possible Combination?  Technology in a minor role.  Role of culture less significant.  Role of physiological (non-cognitive) characteristics of learner less significant. Influence of Technology SOCIAL PRESENCE Social Aspect COGNITIVE PRESENCE Learner Aspect TEACHING PRESENCE (Structure / Process)

22 A Possible Combination? Places too much emphasis on technology Aspects and presences are not equivalent.

23 References Arbaugh, J. B., Cleveland-Innes, M., Diaz, S., Garrison, D. R., Ice, P, Richardson, J. C., Shea, P., & Swan, K. (2008). Developing a community of inquiry instrument: Testing a measure of the Community of Inquiry framework using a multi-institutional sample. The Internet and Higher Education, 11 (3-4), Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T, & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2, 87–105. Katz, J.E. (2006). Mobile communication and the transformation of daily life: The next phase of research on mobiles. Knowledge, Technology & Policy, 19 (1), Kenny, R.F., Park, C.L., Van Neste-Kenny, J.M.C., Burton, P.A. & Meiers, J. (2009). Using mobile learning to enhance the quality of nursing practice education. In M. Ally (Ed.), Empowering Learners and Educators with Mobile Learning. Athabasca, AB: Athabasca University Press. Kenny, R.F., Park, C.L., Van Neste-Kenny, J.M.C., Burton, P.A. & Meiers, J. (2008). The feasibility of using mobile devices in nursing practice education. In J. Traxler, B. Riorden & C. Dennett (Eds.), Proceedings of mLearn 2008, the 7th World Conference on Mobile Learning, Shropshire, England. Koole, M. L. (2005). The framework for the rational analysis of mobile education (FRAME) model: An evaluation of mobile devices for distance education. Unpublished master’s thesis. Athabasca University, Alberta. Retrieved September 21, 2006, from Koole, M. L. (2009). A model for framing mobile learning. In M. Ally (Ed.), Empowering Learners and Educators with Mobile Learning. Athabasca, AB: Athabasca University Press.


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