“Digital technologies are for education as iron and steel girders, reinforced concrete, plate glass, elevators, central heating and air conditioning were for architecture. Digital technologies set in abeyance significant, long lasting limits on educational activity.” -- R. O. McClintock, 1999 Access to Information Multimedia Integration Digital Tools to Augment Intelligence Collaboration DIGITALAFFORDANCESDIGITALAFFORDANCES
The Community of Inquiry Framework: Building Learning Communities Online Karen Swan University of Illinois Springfield
So how can we design and implement online learning to take advantage of digital affordances but to still preserve the best aspects of a traditional liberal education?
Community of Inquiry Framework a process model of learning in online and blended educational environments grounded in a social constructivist view of higher education assumes effective learning in higher education requires the development of a community of learners that supports meaningful inquiry
SOCIAL PRESENCE the ability of participants in a virtual community project themselves socially and emotionally; their ability to perceive one another as ‘real’ people; affective expression, cohesion, interactivity
research findings social presence positively related to: student satisfaction perceived & actual learning retention & progression course design but: interesting differences in social presence perceptions among students Interesting differences in effects between students & instructors
some practical implications Develop initial course activities to encourage the development of swift trust. Make participation in discussion a significant part of course grades. Require students to incorporate materials from the discussions in their assignments. Use short videos of yourself to introduce the course and particular topics. Journal or otherwise interact with your students on an individual and personal basis. Use audio to embed feedback on assignments within them. Design community building activities.
COGNITIVE PRESENCE the extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse triggering event, exploration, integration, resolution
research findings cognitive presence difficult to move to resolution: most online discussion never moves beyond the exploration stage but: online discussion proceeds to integration & resolution when participants are tasked with problem solution & explicit direction & facilitation are provided & it may be that resolution in some subject areas is individual and happens outside discussion
some practical implications Model, support & encourage diverse points of view in online discussion. Use content & process scaffolds to support discourse behaviors. Use online discussion & writing activities to support conceptual learning and divergent thinking. Use self-testing, practice assignments, simulations & other interactive activities to support skill development & convergent thinking. Develop grading rubrics for discussion & course activities that reward desired cognitive behaviors. Provide frequent opportunities for testing & feedback.
TEACHING PRESENCE the design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing educationally worthwhile learning outcomes design & organization, facilitation, direct instruction
research findings teaching presence positively related to: development of social & cognitive presence satisfaction & learning development of a sense of community in online courses and: critically important to successful online learning
some practical implications Provide frequent opportunities for both public and private interactions with students. Provide students with timely & supportive feedback. Apply collaborative learning principles to support small group discussion and collaborative projects. Design diverse activities to be completed every week. Design courses for learner choice, flexibility & control. Design and review courses for clarity & consistency.
Community of Inquiry Survey 34 five-point Likert-type items with which respondents indicate agreement/disagreement 13 teaching presence, 9 social presence, 12 cognitive presence items, including at least 3 for each element of each presence validated by factor analysis of data obtained from multiple institutions used as a measure of student perceptions of learning processes around the world for both research & practical purposes
practical implications -- course rede sign QM design based research involving the redesign of core courses in a graduate program in Teacher Leadership based on the Quality Matters rubric, followed by the iterative “tweaking” of course design and implementation to addressed low-scoring items on the CoI survey
Can course redesign based on meeting Quality Matters standards (QM revisions) result in improved student learning outcomes? Can changes in course design and implementation targeted to enhance particular Community of Inquiry scores (CoI revisions) lead to both increased CoI scores and improved learning outcomes? What is the effect of the two-phased combination of QM revisions & CoI revisions on student learning outcomes? research questions QM
subjects – graduate students enrolled in EDL core courses (105/135 = 76% response rate) instruments – QM review & CoI survey outcome measures – standardized scores (percent correct) on major course assignments and overall course grades data analysis – descriptive, ANOVA methodology QM
baseline collect CoI survey & outcomes dat a QM review & revisions post QM c ollect CoI survey & outcomes data CoI analysis & revisions CoI 1 c ollect CoI survey & outcomes d ata CoI analysis & revisions CoI 2 collect CoI survey & outcomes data CoI analysis & revisions CoI 3 collect CoI survey & outcomes data initial QM revision & iterative CoI “tweaking”
** course redesign: results QM Outcomes significantly improved in three out of four of the core courses involved. **
The Community of Inquiry model provides a meaningful framework for developing, implementing, & exploring online learning. It helps us to build learning communities online. But it is just a start – we also need to rethink teaching and learning, not just for the online environment, but also for the digital age
RETHINKING TEACHINGRETHINKING TEACHING Rethinking Pedagogy – Conducting Learning Rethinking Boundaries – Learning While Mobile Rethinking Curricula – What Knowledge Is Most Important
RETHINKING LEARNINGRETHINKING LEARNING Rethinking Engagement Rethinking Individualization & Choice Rethinking Collaboration Rethinking Learning for All